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Transoceanic Connections and Global Encounters

Transoceanic Connections and Global Encounters

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Transoceanic Connections and Global Encounters

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  1. Transoceanic Connections and Global Encounters Readings: Spodek, 388-414, 421, 438-447

  2. Eurasia and Africa Very Connected • Center of Trade—Asia: • Japan • Moluccas • China • India

  3. More Peripheral but still involved in Trade • Swahili Trading Cities—Kilwa • Sahara Desert Cities—Timbuktu • MAIN GOODS • Spices—Pepper, Cloves, Gold, Frankincense, Myrrh • Chinese Porcelain • Silk

  4. Main Source of Gold: Africa • West Africa along Niger River • East Africa: The Great Zimbabwe

  5. Central Area of Early Modern Trade and Empire Centered on Inida • India Early Began Exporting Cotton, especially to Egypt, the Mediterranean, and East Africa • 400 C.E. Malay sailors trading goods from Easter Island to East Africa • Rode the monsoons without a compass • Used square pivot sails that allowed them to sail into the wind, by tacking against it—the prototype of the triangular lateen sail

  6. China and Early Trade • Cities on China’s southern coasts became centers of overseas commerce • Exported silk, porcelain, iron hardware—needles, scissors, and cooking pots • To facilitate commerce, conquest, and government—invented printing and paper, gunpowder, and the compass

  7. Muslim Trade • Spread crops developed or improved in India to Middle East, North Africa, and Islamic Spain: Sugar, cotton, and citrus fruits • Arabs first to import large numbers of enslaved Africans to produce sugar • By 1000 sugarcane major crop in Yemen, Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, the Mahgrib, Spain and Mediterranean areas controlled by Muslims—in many places had to develop sophisticated irrigation • Also spread cotton from Iran and Central Asia to Spain and the Mediterranean • Used silver from mines they developed in Afghanistan and gold from across the Sahara

  8. East Africans, Muslims, and Europe’s Problem • East Africans—the Swahilis controlled the Indian Ocean Trade until Annihilated by the Portuguese. • Arabs controlled overland trade to Asia • Triple threat: economic, religious, cultural • Turned to seaborne exploration • Complicated by winds and currents

  9. Europe increasingly on Periphery Rise of Great Islamic Empires, especially the Ottoman Empire Problems gets worse With Conquest of Constantinople, the Great Byzantine City EUROPE’S PROBLEMS

  10. Europe’s Problem and Solutions • Columbus Solution: Sail across the Atlantic • Why was Columbus’ voyage possible? • The European Printing Press • New Maps • Travel Accounts like Marco Polo’s • Inventions

  11. WHY NOT CHINA? • Zheng He and Ming Treasure Ships, which were largest ships, largest in the World At Time • Got to Africa, But then China Threatened from the North—Emperor Ends Voyages

  12. Timeline • 1492—Thinking he reached islands near China, Columbus probably hit what is now the Dominican Republic • 1497 Vasco Da Gama sails around Cape of Good Horn (Africa) • 1501—Amerigo Vespucci • 1513—Vasco Nunez de Balboa • 1519-1522—Ferdinand Magellan

  13. Timeline (Continued) • 1493-1494 Treaty of Tordesillas - happened with the blessing of the Pope • 1501—Slaves brought to Americas • 1505—Portuguese destroy Kilwa • 1522—Spanish conquer the Americas and the Americas are incorporated into Eurasian trade • 1542 Spanish claim the Philippines and later create the Manila Galleon