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Leadership. Prepared for UHS 2062 at UTM Skudai , Johore , MALAYSIA by Siti Rokiah Siwok . srsiwok@gmail.com. Leadership. Many questions are being asked related to leadership, such as: Are leaders born ? Are leaders “bred”/developed? What makes a good organizational leader ?

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  1. Leadership Prepared for UHS 2062 at UTM Skudai, Johore, MALAYSIA by SitiRokiahSiwok. srsiwok@gmail.com

  2. Leadership • Many questions are being asked related to leadership, such as: • Are leaders born? • Are leaders “bred”/developed? • What makes a good organizational leader? • Many theories are associated with leadership.

  3. Leader emergence • It is the idea that people who become leader have traits or characteristics different from people who do not become leaders.

  4. Characteristics of Leaders • Leaders have special characteristics . • Recent reviews show that : • People high in openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and low in neuroticism are more likely to emerge as leaders (Judge, Bono, Ilies and Gerhardt, 2002) • High self monitors emerge as leaders more often then low self-monitors. • More intelligent • Leadership emergence seems to be stable across the life-span

  5. Traits of leader emergence and the motivation to lead • There is lack of agreement on a list of traits consistently related to leader emergence. • This can be explained by the complexity of motivation to lead, which has three aspects : • Affective identity motivation ( enjoy being a leader) • Noncalculativemotivation (with personal gain in mind) • Social-normative motivation (sense of duty)

  6. Leader Performance • Leader performance involves the idea that people who perform well have certain characteristics that poor performing leaders do not. • Rather then thinking that a leader “emerge”, we can look into the performance of the leaders. We see what are the characteristics of leaders who perform well vis-à-vis those not performing well. • Example: we say that a good leader is intelligent, assertive and friendly while a poor leader is not intelligent, non-assertive and shy.

  7. Characteristics and leader performance • There is a relationship between personal characteristics and leader performance. • Three areas are given focus: • Traits • Needs • Orientation

  8. Traits • Meta-analysis by Youngjohn (1999) found that individual-difference variables were good predictors of leadership performance: • Charismatic • Dominant • Energetic • High in self monitoring

  9. Personal characteristics and leader performance: Traits • In another meta-analysis (Judge et al, 2002), these traits are found to be positively correlate to leader performance: • Extraversion • Openness • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Neuroticism negatively relates to leader performance.

  10. Personal Characteristics and leader performance :Needs • Need for power • Need for achievement • Need for affiliation

  11. Characteristics and leader performance :Needs • Research by Mc Clelland and Burnham (1976) and McClelland and Boyatzis (1982) demonstrates that high performance managers have a leadership motive pattern; high need for power and low need for affiliation. The need for power is NOT for personal power but for ORGANIZATIONAL POWER.

  12. Personal characteristics and leader performance :Needs test • Needs for power, achievement and affiliation can be measured through various psychological tests; such as the Thematic Appreciation Test(TAT) or the Job Choice Exercise(JCE) or by examining their themes in their speeches and writings.

  13. Personal characteristics and leader performance :orientation • Three major school of thoughts have postulated that differences in leader performance can be attributed to the extent to which leaders are TASK vs PERSON ORIENTED.

  14. Consequences of leader orientation High Person orientation Low Low High Task orientation

  15. Task oriented leaders • Task-oriented leaders see their employees as lazy , extrinsically motivated, undisciplined etc, so task-oriented leaders lead by giving directives, setting goals and making decision without consulting their subordinates. • Included in the task oriented leaders are : • Task-centered leaders • Theory X leaders • High initiating structure

  16. Person oriented leaders • act in a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the employees • believe employees are intrinsically motivated

  17. Instruments • The orientation of a leader can be measured by several instruments such as: • Leadership Opinion Questionnaire ( LOQ) • Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)

  18. Unsuccessful or poor leaders • According to Hogan (1989): • Lack of leadership training • Trained after being hired • Cognitive deficiencies • Unable to learn from experience • Do not able to think strategically • Personality • Paranoid, Passive –aggressive, narcissist, high-likeability floater.

  19. Interaction between leader and situation • Leader’s effectiveness not only depends on traits that s/he posses but also on the particular situation in which the leader is in. • Several theories ( or models) have emerged to explain the situational nature of leadership.

  20. Leader and situation: Contingency Model • Fiedler’s contingency model holds that any leader is effective only in certain situations. • Thus Fiedler argue that rather than change the leadership style , leadership training should concentrate on helping people understand their leadership style and manipulate the environment to make a perfect match. • Fiedler developed Least Preferred coworker scale ( LPC) • Fiedler’s ideas supported by researches • Fiedler’s training : Leader match

  21. Leader and situation: IMPACT • IMPACT theory, developed by Geier, Downey and Johnson (1980). • Leaders have 6 behaviour styles : informational, magnetic, position, affiliation, coercive and tactical. • Each style is effective with only one particular situation or organizational climate.

  22. IMPACT THEORY • Informational style in climate of ignorance • Magnetic style in a climate of despair • Position style in a climate of instability • Affiliation style in a climate of anxiety • Coercive style in a climate of crisis • Tactical style in a climate of disorganization

  23. IMPACT THEORY: STRATEGIES • Find a climate consistent with your leadership style • Change your leadership style to better fit the climate • Change your followers perception of the climate • Change the actual climate

  24. Leader and situation: Path-goal Theory • Leaders who can adapt their behaviour to match the needs of their subordinates will be more effective than leaders who stick to one leadership style ( Foster, 1999, in Aamodt, 2010) • According to the path-goal theory ( House, 1971, in Aamodt, 2010), a leader can adopt one of the leadership styles to manage different situations: • Instrumental • Supportive • Participative • Achievement -oriented

  25. Leader and situation: Path-goal Theory • Each style will work in certain situations and also depends on the subordinates’ abilities and the extent the task is structured. • The higher the level of subordinates’ abilities, the less directive the leader should be. • On the contrary, the less structured the situation , the more directive will the leader be ( Schriesheim and DeNisi, 1981)

  26. Leader and situation: Path-goal Theory • In addition, according to this theory, a leader should: • Recognize the needs of subordinates and work to satisfy those needs. • Reward subordinates who reach their goals. • Help subordinates identify the best paths to take in reaching particular goals. • Clear those paths so that employees can reach their goals. As path-goal theory is behaviour based, the theory could be used in training.

  27. Leader and situation: Situational leadership theory • Developed by Hersey and Blanchard (1988), a leader uses four leadership styles : • Delegating • Directing • Supporting • Coaching

  28. Leader and situation: LMX (VDL) • LMX is another leadership theory and was originally called vertical dyad linkage ( VDL) theory. • The uniqueness of this theory is the focus on interaction between ,leaders and subordinates. • These interactions are called leader-member exchanges ( LMX). • The idea originates from the relationship between two people( dyad) whereby the leader is in the position above the subordinate ( vertical) plus their interrelated behaviours ( linkage). Hence VDL.

  29. Summary of leadership theories

  30. Summary of leadership theories

  31. Means of being a leader

  32. Means to be a leader • Leadership through decision making (Vroom-Yetton model). • Leadership through contact (management by walking around). • Leadership through power ( expert power, legitimate power, reward and coercive powers, referent power). • Leadership through vision (transformational leadership).

  33. Two ways of describing leadership styles • Another way of looking at leadership styles is to categorise it into two broad categories, namely : • Transactional • Transformational Each style has its own dimensions.

  34. Please read more

  35. Main reference: Aamodt 2010

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