DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP • Leadership is a behavioral process through which one person influences the behaviors of others toward the accomplishment of shared goals. • Leadership involves the creation of a vision that empowers others to translate this vision into reality. • Empowerment occurs when a leader effectively communicates with and inspires ordinary people to accomplish extraordinary results.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES • Trait — only a few possess the superior characteristics of leaders • Cognitive (20th century Great Man) —leaders influence behaviors of others, such as with humility and fierce resolve • Power or influence — includes power-sharing and empowerment of followers • Situational — circumstances or environmental factors determine who will emerge as a leader
LEADERSHIP THEORIES • Integrative — transformational and values-based • Visionary — mobilizes others to achieve shared aspirations • Strategic — envision, direct, align, motivate, inspire, and energize followers • Servant — listens, empathizes, persuades, and builds community
KEYS TO LEADERSHIP Leadership — “The skill of influencing people to work enthusiastically toward goals identified as being for the common good.” (p. 28) Authority — “The skill of getting people to willingly do your will because of your personal influence” (p. 30) “Authority is about who you are as a person, your character, and the influence you’ve built with people.” (p. 31) Service and Sacrifice — giving to and doing for others selflessly (Hunter, 1998)
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS • Leaders have integrity. • Leaders live according to a moral purpose. • Leaders build relationships with people. • Leaders are effective communicators. • Leaders are visionary and creative. • Leaders establish, maintain, and model high standards of performance. • Leaders show an unwavering resolve and calm determination. • Leaders are energetic.
LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR THE FUTURE VALUES PEOPLE TEAMWORK
A CULTURE OF DISCIPLINE Breakthrough Build-up Disciplined Thought Disciplined People Disciplined Action + + (Collins, 2001, p. 127)
CORE VALUES • Identify what you believe in — you understand your core values by looking inside (Who you are) • Reflect on and describe to yourself what these values mean to you • Decide how you will incorporate these core values into all aspects of your daily life
CORE VALUES • Integrity — quality of a person's character that fulfills one’s moral obligation to self and others • Respect — holding others in high regard and treating them the way you wish to be treated • Mutual trust — confidence and belief in the honesty and reliability of others • Responsibility — being morally accountable for your actions
VALUES AND GREATNESS • “Good is the enemy of great,” according to Jim Collins in his book, Good to Great. • The leader who makes a good organization great is guided by values. • The really great organizations place people and values first.
LEADERSHIP AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT • Leaders who are respected and successful will serve as role models of character and be examples that people will choose to emulate. • Leaders provide learning opportunities that include ethical choices and emphasize the importance of character.
FOCUS ON PEOPLE-CENTERED VALUES • Place a high importance on values and aligning values, strategies, and people • Tap into the energy of people by connecting through their values • Unlock the human potential of people • Increase the chance of success will lead to extraordinary results
PEOPLE ARE MOST IMPORTANT • Successful leaders emphasize building and nurturing personal relationships — connections with people will lead to results • Leaders prioritize hiring and retaining good people • Most people seek challenges and desire to be successful but want to be empowered to do the job themselves.
ASSEMBLING THE RIGHT TEAM • First, get the right people on the bus (and the wrong people off the bus) beforeyou figure out where to drive the bus. • Second, apply sheer rigor in making decisions about people. • You need members on your team who argue and debate in pursuit of the best answers, yet who unify fully behind a decision once made.
Recruitment Define expectations Hire for fit Coach Counsel Guide Nurturing and Supervision Identify expectations Develop a plan Provide any needed retraining and resources Evaluate versus expectations Release, if performance is unacceptable THE RIGHT PEOPLE
Teams — groups organized to work together to accomplish goals or tasks that cannot be achieved as effectively by individuals TEAMWORK
Commitment to mutual trust and respect Dedication to the achievement of shared goals Interdependences flourish Effective in communications Mistakes provide learning opportunities Realization of the positive impact of each team member’s contributions as synergies develop FACILITATING TEAMWORK
CULTURE OR CLIMATE “Culture emphasizes the unspoken assumptions (values; beliefs; myths; traditions; norms) that underlie an organization, whereas climate focuses on the more accessible perceptions of the organization, especially how they arouse motivation and, thus, impact performance.” (Stringer, 2002, p. 14)
QUALITIES OF A DREAM TEAM • Team members care for one another. • Team members know what is important. • Team members communication with one another. • Team members grow together. • There is a team fit. • Team members place their individual rights beneath the best interest of the team. • Team members each play a special role. • An effective team has a good bench. • Team members know exactly where the team stands. • Team members are willing to pay the price. (Maxwell, 1995)
CHANGING PARADIGM IN LEADERSHIP • Leaders should • Behave in ethical ways based on values • Enhance the personal growth of people • Facilitate teamworkfor greater success
LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR THE FUTURE VALUES PEOPLE TEAMWORK
Vision—Passion—Purpose • http://www.clientlogic.com/resources/video_VPP.html
FOUR FRAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS • Structural — the leader as analyst or architect • Human resource — the leader as catalyst or servant • Political — the leader as advocate or negotiator • Symbolic — the leader as prophet or inspiration Bolman & Deal, 1997
STRUCTURAL FRAME • The structural frame describes the importance of navigating the organizational maze in order to make progress toward organizational goals while gaining a better understanding of the importance of building teams. • Effective structural leaders focus on implementation.
STRUCTURAL FRAME • Learn to navigate the organizational maze—“learning the ropes” • Build a partnership with those to whom you report • Gain a broader understanding of institutional policies, procedures, job expectations, and day-to-day details • Establish priorities and plan for short- and long-term growth of the organization
HUMAN RESOURCE FRAME • The human resource frame stresses the importance of developing strong interpersonal relationships and facilitating positive group dynamics. • Leadership may be more about relationships than it is about ideas or vision, e.g., people are the most important resource.
HUMAN RESOURCE FRAME • Hire the right people, then • Empower people with authority and responsibility • Facilitate their collaboration and teamwork • Reward them • Communicate effectively • Facilitate positive relationships • Treat others equitably and with respect • Demonstrate strong negotiation and conflict resolution skills
POLITICAL FRAME • The political frame deals with managing power, conflict, and coalitions and learning how to address various political agendas. • Special interest groups and individual perspectives permeate organizations, so interactions must be thoughtfully considered and handled carefully.
POLITICAL FRAME • Understand and manage power very carefully • Realize that organizational dynamics evolve from coalitions of various individuals and interest groups with their enduring differences • Build relationships with key external constituencies • Recognize and handle astutely all controversies and politically-charged issues
SYMBOLIC FRAME • The symbolic frame emphasizes the organizational culture and how appearances and representations shape perceptions. • Leaders interpret and reinterpret experiences. • Perceptions are almost always more real than reality.
SYMBOLIC FRAME • Understand that the multiple meanings of events to the people involved overshadow any stated purpose • Affirm and celebrate the symbolism of rituals, ceremonies, and special events • Develop and feature special occasions and symbols so they become highly regarded by constituents • Celebrate everyone’s achievements
SEVEN HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE 7. Sharpen the saw 6. Synergize 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 4. Think win/win 3. Put first things first 2. Begin with the end in mind 1. Be proactive Renewal Public Victory Private Victory (Covey, 1990, p. 53)
TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP High Encouraging (use when followers are able and unwilling) Coaching (use when followers are unable and willing) Relationships (with people) Delegating (use when followers are able and willing) Structuring (use when followers are unable and unwilling) Tasks (getting the job done) Low High
SIX STYLES OF LEADERSHIP • Coercive — demands immediate compliance • Authoritative — mobilizes people toward a vision and may serve as a catalyst for change • Affiliative — creates emotional bonds, builds relationships, and nurtures harmony • Democratic — builds consensus through participation, collaboration, team leadership, and effective communication • Pacesetting — sets high standards for performance and expects excellence and self-direction • Coaching — develops people to improve performance and develop long-term strengths
SIX STYLES OF LEADERSHIP • Is each leadership style effective? • If so, in what types of situations? • Which is the most effective leadership style, and why? • Which is the least effective leadership style, and why?
Leadership Assignment Goleman suggests that there are six styles of leadership (coercive; authoritative; affiliative; democratic; pacesetting; coaching) that are chosen by different leaders and may be used in various circumstances. Select the one approach that you feel you will utilize most often as a leader in your chosen career. Describe two specific situations in which you think you would use this approach most effectively and explain why. Describe one situation in which you would choose to use another style and why the circumstances would call for the use of this approach.