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Leadership. Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change. 1-3. Key Elements of Leadership. Influence. Leaders-Followers. Leadership. Organizational Objectives. Change. People. 1-4. Interpersonal. Managerial Roles.

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Leadership .

  2. Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change. 1-3

  3. Key Elements of Leadership Influence Leaders-Followers Leadership Organizational Objectives Change People 1-4

  4. Interpersonal Managerial Roles 1. Figurehead 2.Leader 3. Liaison Informational 4. Monitor 5. Disseminator 6. Spokesperson Decisional 7. Entrepreneur 8. Disturbance handler 9. Resource-allocator 10. Negotiator 1-5

  5. 3 Levels of Leadership Analysis Group Organizational Individual 1-6

  6. Trait Contingency Behavioral Integrative The 4 Leadership Theory Classifications Include: 1-7

  7. Leadership Trait Theory attempts to explain distinctive characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness to identify a set of traits that all successful leaders possess. 1-8

  8. Behavioral Leadership Theories attempt to explain distinctive styles used by effective leaders or the nature of their work. 1-9

  9. Contingency Leadership Theories attempt to explain the appropriate leadership style based on the leader, followers, and situation 1-10

  10. Integrative Leadership Theories attempt to combine the train, behavioral, and contingency theories to explain successful influencing leader follower relationships. 1-11

  11. Great Man (Person) Approach Sought to identify the traits effective leaders possessed. 2-3

  12. Big Five Model of Personality Surgency Adjustment Agreeableness Conscientiousness Open to experience 2-4

  13. 1. Bullying style 2. Cold, aloof, arrogant 3. Betrayed personal trust 4. Self-centered 5. Specific performance problems 6. Overmanaged 6 Major Reasons for Executive Derailment 2-5

  14. Locus of Control Integrity High energy Flexibility 9 Traits of Effective Leaders Dominance Sensitivity to others Self-confident Intelligence Stability 2-6

  15. Achievement MotivationTheory • attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on one’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation. 2-7

  16. TheoryX.................TheoryY(Autocratic) (Participative) Support Control 2-8

  17. Pygmalion Effect • Managers’ attitudes, expectations, and treatment of employees explain and predict behavior and performance behavior and performance of employees 2-9

  18. Motivation “If you think you canyou can,if you think you can’t,you can’t.” 2-10

  19. Leadership Styles Based on Attitudes Theory Y Attitudes Theory X Attitudes Positive Self-Concept •Bossy •Pushy •Impatient •Critical •Autocratic •Gives and accepts positive feedback •Expects others to succeed •Lets others do the job their way Negative Self-Concept •Pessimistic •Promotes hopelessness •Afraid to make decisions •Unassertive •Self-blaming 2-11

  20. Golden Rule “Do unto others as you want them to do unto you.” or “Don’t do anything to anyone that you would not want them to do to you.” 2-12

  21. Stakeholder’s Approach to Ethics • creates a win-win situation for relevant parties affected by the decision. 2-13

  22. Leadership Styles Autocratic...........................Democratic 3-3

  23. One-Dimensional Two Leadership Styles Model Job Centered........Employee Centered 3-4

  24. Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles C O N S I D E R A T I O N High Low Structure High Structure and and High Consideration High Consideration Low Structure High Structure and and Low Consideration Low Consideration Low Initiating Structure Low High 3-5

  25. Although there is no one best leadership style in all situations, employees are more satisfied with a leader who is high in consideration 3-6

  26. Leadership Grid High 1,9 Country Club 9,9 Team Leader CONCERN - P E O P L E 5,5 Middle of the Road Impoverished Authority-Compliance 9,1 1,1 Low 1 CONCERN for PRODUCTION 9 Low High 3-7

  27. Hierarchy of Needs Acquired Needs Two-Factor 3 Content Motivation Theories 3-8

  28. The Motivation Process Need Motive Behavior Consequence Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction Feedback 3-9

  29. Major Motivation Theories Specific Motivation Theory a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. Two-factor theory c. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory Type of Reinforcement a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment Classification of Motivation Theories 1. Content Motivation theories 2. Process Motivation Theories 3. Reinforcement Theory 3-10

  30. Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological 3-11

  31. Acquired Needs Theory(employees are motivated by their need for:) Power Affiliation Achievement 3-12

  32. Equity Theory (proposed that employees are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.) Others’ input (contributions) Others’ outcomes (rewards) Our inputs (contributions) = Our outcomes (rewards) = 3-13

  33. Expectancy Theory • Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort. 3-14

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