Chapter 1: Health Care of the Past, Present, and Future
Health Care of the past • The most helpful treatments of the past were from herbs & plants. • Why is Hippocrates considered the father of modern medicine? He initiated the oath of practice that, in an adapted form is still used today. • Take a closer look at the Hippocratic Oath Put each phrase in everyday language • What 2 things caused millions of deaths in early times? Plagues & epidemics. • Medical Milestones…what 5 do you think are most important?
Health Care of the Present: How has health care shifted? • Prevention of contagious diseases tothose such as cancer, drug abuse, heart disease (result of lifestyle) • Primary concerns ofemergency response and preparedness. • Focus on communicable diseases such asAIDS, tuberculosis, avian flu (prepare for pandemics)
Health Care of the Present • Institutional health provided by what? (5) • General hospitals • Convalescent care centers • Health maintenance organizations • Home health agencies • Public health agencies • Health care is one of thesmallest/largest industries in the US. • The supply of workers is less/more than the demand? • The cost of health care in the US increases much faster/slower than other factors in the cost of living.
Health care of the past • Who is Florence Nightingale? • She is credited for raising nursing to the level of a profession (not a strong educational background) • In the past the “patient” of the health care industry was characterized by what words? • Passive recipient • Dependent • Accepted without question
Health Care of the present… • How has health care shifted? • Prevention of contagious diseases to those such as cancer, drug abuse, heart disease, (result of lifestyle) • Primary concerns of emergency response and preparedness • Focus on communicable diseases such as • passive recipient • dependent • accepted without question
Health Care Present…. • Institutional health provided by what? (5) • General hospitals • Convalescent care centers • Health maintenance organizations • Home health agencies • Public health agencies • Health care is one of the largest/smallest industries in the US. • The supply of workers is less/more than the demand? • The cost of health care in the US increases much faster/slower than other factors in the cost of living.
Health Care of the present • Some reasons for rising health care costs include: • advanced technological developments • Malpractice litigation • Increase in longevity • Disaster relief expenses • How does the US differ in health insurance from other countries? only industrialized nation in the world that does not guarantee health care to all citizens. • Medicare (federal)- individuals over 65, younger with disabilities • Medicaid (federal & state)- provide coverage for individuals with low income and limited resources • DRGs diagnosis related groupings, reimbursement for services on basis of the diagnosis instead of the actual costs.
Insurance considerations… • HMO- health care providers are employed by the organization & work at designated facility • Traditional model (fee for service)- reimbursement for care regardless of who provides it • Premiums on health insurance has risen faster/slower than cost of living. • Disability income insurance- provide money payment for those who become disabled & unable to earn salary • Long-term care insurance- provide money payment for those who require care over remainder of life or rehabilitation • Medical savings accounts- pre-tax money put aside to be used for medical payments not covered by insurance. Optional
Insurance considerations… • The rise in professional malpractice insurance has contributed to the decline/rise of health care costs. #1 is Obstetric/gynecology • What is defensive medicine? Prevents the risk of liability of malpractice, order many tests and avoid caring for high-risk patients (OB) • Health is no longer considered to be just the absence of illness/injury but now defined as a state of optimal well-being achieved through prevention of illness and injury. • Labor statistics projects the health services as one of top 10 growing industries to 2012.
Health Care present… • What are paraprofessional careers? physician assistant, nurse practitioner, midwife (assist professionals) • The “patient” of today has become a “client” or “consumer” of health care services. • With these changes, the client is taking less/more responsibility for his or her own care. • The Patient’s Bill of Rights (1972) • (activity)
Education & Training of Health Care Workers: Career A group of related jobs or occupations over a period of time Occupation Individual jobs within a career area, specific tasks and duties
Education & Training… • Accreditation- government agencies and professional associations set standards to insure the quality of education and training. Determines if they meet the standards. • Licensure- controlled by state and & based on successful completion of exam • Certification-given by agency or training program-indicates successful completion of a particular course(s) • Registration-meet a criteria of excellence or legal responsibility- earn through state or agency
Education & training • Aide- on the job training • Assistant- up to 1 year of classroom & clinical preparation • Technician- 2 year community college or vocational training program • Technologist- 3-4 year college program • Professional- 4 year degree, advanced degree, & clinical training
Health care of the future… • Health care of the future will emphasize wellness & prevention instead of a cure. • Wellness services will include • Nutritional advice • Stress reduction counseling • Habit cessation management • Exercise instruction • Technology will continue to drive the type and pace of changes in the industry.
Health Care of future… • One main area of service in the future will be care of the elderly. • The elderly require 3 times the amount of health care as those in younger groups. • Elderly experience chronic conditions and limited movement in some manner. • There will be fewer small hospitals and more large urban institutions. • More people will be treated in home care settings.
Health care of the future… There will be increase in treatment and acceptance of alternative and or holistic health. Examples of these are: • bee pollen (asthma) • acupuncture for depression • hypnosis to speed healing of bones • yoga to control addiction • shark cartilage to reduce tumors Increase in nanotechnology and telemedicine.
Health care of future… • Future workers will be trained for broad range of skills and know about many areas of care. • How has (does) the internet change health care today and in the future?
Leading Health indicators Major health concerns in US at beginning of the 21st century- • physical activity • obesity • tobacco use • substance abuse • Responsible sexual behavior • mental health • injury/violence, • environmental quality • immunization • access to health care