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Solutions. Definitions. Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in. General Properties of Solutions. 1. solute particles in solutions are very small
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Definitions • Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state • Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution • Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in
General Properties of Solutions • 1. solute particles in solutions are very small • 2. solute particles are evenly distributed throughout the solution • 3. particles in a solution will not separate under normal conditions
Types of Solutions • Aqueous solutions: solutions with water as the solvent. • Electrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of ionic compounds. Ionic compounds dissociate allowing for the solution to conduct an electrical charge • Nonelectrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of molecular compounds. The solute does not dissociate.
Solution Formation • When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they dissociate NaCl --> Na+ + Cl- • Each component has an attraction to a certain part of the water molecules
Solubility Rules • Used to predict the solubility of ionic compounds. • Not all ionic compounds are soluble in water. • Some only dissolve partially and some not at all.
Precipitation Reactions • Generally reactants are soluble ionic compounds dissolved in water. • When mixed, one of the possible cations joins with one of the anions to produce a compound that is insoluble. • The insoluble compound falls out of solution as a precipitate.
A solution of silver nitrate is reacted with a solution of potassium chloride. Write the complete balanced chemical equation with notations for state of matter. • Write the equation for the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with ammonium sulfide.
Net Ionic Equations • Removes unused ions (spectator ions) from an equation. • Simpler form of a reaction • Examples: write net ionic equations for previous slide examples.
Mols of solute Liters of Solution M = Molarity (M) • Most common expression of solution concentration
What is the molarity of a solution formed by mixing 38 grams of potassium hydroxide in enough water to make 250 mL of solution?
If I have a 2.5 M sulfuric acid solution, how many liters of solution will be needed to obtain 70 grams of sulfuric acid? How many milliliters?
37 mL of a 0.45 M silver nitrate solution are reacted with 3 grams of copper. What mass of silver will be produced from the reaction?
18 mL of 1.39M sodium iodide is combined with 83 mL of 0.25 M lead (II) nitrate. • Will a reaction occur? • If a reaction occurs, what mass of precipitate should be produced?
What volume of 0.750 M Pb(NO3)2, in milliliters, is required to react completely with 1 L of 2.25 M NaCl?
What volume of 18 M sulfuric acid is needed to create 6 Liters of 3.25 M sulfuric acid?
Describe how you would prepare 400 mL of a 3.75 M solution of nitric acid if given a supply of 14.3 M nitric acid.
Describe how to prepare 500 mL of a 0.8 M solution of sodium hydroxide when provided with solid sodium hydroxide and distilled water.
Saturation • Saturated: solution contains all possible solute under current conditions • Unsaturated: more solute can be dissolved • Supersaturated: solution contains solute past the saturation point for the current conditions