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Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics

Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics

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Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics

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  1. Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance Subcommittee Meeting 9:30am – 12:30pm (PT) December 11, 2012 Call-in: 712/432-0075 742911# Weblink:

  2. Agenda • 9:30 Recap of 2012, Results of Roadmap Prioritization Survey • 10:00 Presentation of Climacheck Case Study • 10:30 Presentation of Ezenics and Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings • 11:30 HVAC Maintenance Behavior: the Customer and the Technician • 12:30 Adjourn

  3. 2012 AFDD Subcommittee Accomplishments • Roadmap Reviewed and Survey Conducted • Title 24 Requirement Passed • SCE continued Testing • SPC 207 Launched • Developed Timeline of AFDD Advancements • Presentations • Daihung Yu: Virtual Sensors • Jon Douglas: Residential and Light Commercial Systems • Sean McCaffrey: Case Study • Brian Thompson: Ezenics • Kristin Heinemeier and Claudia Barriga: Maintenance Behavior

  4. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard

  5. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard

  6. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard

  7. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField

  8. Evaluating Diagnostic Protocols • PIER-Purdue Protocol Evaluator: accuracy test for FDD protocols • refrigerant charge • evaporator & condenser airflow • non-condensables • liquid line restrictions • compressor valve leakage Application software/users manual in final development • CA T24 2008/2013 Installer/HERS RCA spec “…performs poorly. Flagging faults in up to 46% of the unfaulted cases, misdiagnosing over 25% of cases with faults, and not detecting faults in 32-55% of the cases with faults present.”

  9. FDD Evaluator Review • Draft Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator report: January 2013 • Tentative March 1, 2013 in-person meeting @ WCEC UC/Davis • Review evaluator • Review RCA issues

  10. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField

  11. Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField

  12. OnBoard Priorities • Research FDD for Different System Types • Laboratory Methods of Test • Research into FDD on Thermostat • Research into Non-Microprocessor Units • Propose Reach Code FDD Requirements • Research into Fault Incidence • Cost Effectiveness Assessment and Dissemination

  13. InField Priorities • Results from Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator Project • Benchmark and Assess Existing Protocols • Develop Program for Commercial Buildings • In-Field FDD and Maintenance Study • Conduct Human Behavior Projects • Work with OEMS to Develop Products

  14. FDD Case Study Presentation • ClimaCheck • Sean McCaffrey

  15. Manufacturer Presentation • Ezenics • Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings • Brian Thompson

  16. Research Presentation • Understanding Maintenance Behavior • Customer: Claudia Barriga • Technician: Kristin Heinemeier

  17. Maintenance and Real People Kristin Heinemeier Claudia Barriga

  18. HVAC Behavioral Research Initiative

  19. HVAC BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE 2011-2012 PROJECTS • “Understanding Maintenance Behavior in Residential and Light Commercial End Users.” (SCE HTSDA) • “Lab and Field Usability of In-Home Energy Displays” (SCE HTSDA) • “Behavior and AFDD” (SCE HTSDA – Q4 ‘12) • “Understanding Contractor and Technician Behavior” (SCE EM&V) • “Roadmap for Behavior and Human Factors Research in HVAC” (CEC/PIER IA) • “HVAC Technician Instrument Laboratory” (CEC/PIER CIEE)

  20. Understanding Maintenance Behavior in Residential and Light Commercial End Users Claudia Barriga, Kristin Heinemeier, Laura Flynn, Dina Biscotti Western Cooling Efficiency Center Energy Efficiency Center Southern California Edison

  21. Methods Survey of Residential End Users • Sample • 270 Southern California Residents • Random Sample from SCE territory • Online Survey Residents • Knowledge about AC and maintenance • Attitudes towards AC and maintenance • Attitudes towards the environment • Preferences for FDD alert systems

  22. Characteristics of Sample Regarding AC Maintenance

  23. Preferred FDD Alert Type

  24. Simulated In Home Energy Displays with Specific vs. General Alerts and Recommendations

  25. Responses to Tips and Diagnostic Alerts and Recommendations in a Simulated In Home Energy Display

  26. )

  27. I think this should be vertical and tagged at both ends, with color coding for bad stuff (red bad, green good)

  28. Methods Focus Groups of Small Business Owners • Four Focus Groups in 2 SCE territory locations • 10-12 participants per group • Attitudes towards AC and maintenance • Attitudes towards Utilities Energy Efficiency Programs • Attitudes towards the Environment

  29. Key Findings • Key finding 1: Small business owners are not convinced that regular HVAC maintenance saves money. • Recommendations: Show customers approximate (or best yet, actual) energy savings on bill that result from active participation in maintenance programs. Develop tools or techniques to field test AC unit efficiency before and after measures are implemented. • Key finding 2: Small business owners do not understand how to properly maintain HVAC equipment. • Recommendation: Create a guide for small businesses owners to use as a screening tool to find good contractors and as a double check for existing contractors. • Key Finding 3: Small business owners do not like complicated rebate programs. • Recommendation: Streamline rebate process or encourage contractors to take on the role of rebate collectors to minimize inconvenience to small business owners. Another idea is to provide the rebate as a credit on the utility bill.

  30. Maintenance Technician Observation Study • Covertly Observed 13 Maintenance Technicians • Requested “service,” “maintenance,” and “energy tune-up”. • Two “faults”: • Airflow <250cfm/ton • Registers closed • Post-Observation Interview

  31. TechnicianCharacteristics

  32. Tasks Completed Correctly by Service Duration and Technician Characteristics

  33. Recommendations by Technicians

  34. Technician Observation Conclusions • Technical performance was below the standards of ACCA 4 and “Quality Maintenance” goals. • Yet, technicians were more knowledgeable than their technical performance scores would suggest • This study does not provide evidence that lack of training or certification is creating the problem.

  35. Technician Observation Conclusions • Technicians work hard to achieve their perceived company and customer goals: • Company Goals • Their company’s goal is to sell and accomplish as many service calls as possible in one day. • Customer Goals • Customers are interested in only two things: in the equipment working when needed, and in spending as little time and money as possible to achieve that goal.

  36. Technician Observation Conclusions • These goals are closely tied both to the industry’s traditional practices around “maintenance services” and to common connotations of the word “maintenance”. • Industry transformation should include a way to make technicians see the non-traditional goals of quality technical performance as consistent with the goals of their employers and their customers.

  37. Technician Observation Conclusions • A newcategory of service other than “maintenance” or “tune-up”, is required…perhaps “optimization”. • Solid data on benefits, both for the industry at large and for individual buildings, is key.

  38. Discussion…

  39. Thank you! • Mark Cherniack • Kristin Heinemeier • Jerine Ahmed • Anthony Hernandez • KC Spivey 43