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James Joyce

James Joyce. Joyce’s life. James Joyce was born in 1882 in Dublin , in a large Catholic family. He received excellent education at Jesuit colleges and then at University College, where he graduated in Modern Languages in 1902, studying French , Italian and Norwegian .

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James Joyce

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  1. James Joyce

  2. Joyce’s life James Joyce wasborn in 1882 in Dublin, in a largeCatholic family. Hereceivedexcellenteducation at Jesuitcolleges and then at University College, wherehegraduated in ModernLanguages in 1902, studyingFrench, Italian and Norwegian. Aftergraduating, havingbecomeintolerantof the Catholicreligion and the provincialismofDublin, hemovedtoParistostudy Medicine. Hededicatedtowritingpoems and prose sketchesbuthadto go back toDublinto assist hisdyingmother. In 1904 hemet Nora Barnacle, whoremainedhis life companionand traveledaroundEuropewithhim: theywenttoParis, Zurich and finally Pula and Trieste. In Trieste, heworkedas English teacher at Berlitzschool, wherehemet the Italiannovelis Italo Svevo. In 1905 hefinishedhis short story collection, Dubliners, althoughitwasonlypublished in 1914. At the outbreakof the First World War, hewentwithhis family to Zurich, wherehebegantowriteUlysses. Itwas first published in France in 1922 becauseithadbeenconsideredobscene and censored in England. In 1923 hestartedFinnegansWake(published in 1939). Althoughbeingalmostblind, hecontinuedwriting. With the outbreakof the Second World War, in 1940, Joyce wentfrom France to Zurich, wherehedied in 1941.

  3. Dubliners • Joyce’s first short storieswerepublished in 1914 in a collectioncalledDubliners. • They are a realistic and evocative portraitof the livesofordinary people in Dublin and the city is the protagonistof the novel. • The 15 stories are organized in 4 groups, whichcorrespondto the phasesof life: • Childhood • Adolescence • Maturity • Public Life (political, artistic and religious). The protagonists come fromallclasses: maids, musicteachers, clerks, studentsetc. but Joyce focuses on specificmomentsoftheirlivesthat at first, seemtobelongtomundane, everydayactivities, butthenbecomespecialto the charactersbecausethey are momentsofself-awareness.

  4. Paralysis in Dubliners • A recurrenttheme in the storiesis the feeling ofparalysisthatmanyof the charactershave. Itis the resultof feeling tiredof a narrow cultural and social context. • This feeling isalso in the relationships, which are conditionedby repressive religious and moralcodes. • In fact, Joyce definedDublin “the centreofparalysis”. • Paralysisis the consequenceof a frenetic and impersonal city, the frustratingconsequenceofanunfulfilling job, ofanunsuccessfulmarriagr or lackoffriendship, a life they are notabletochange. • In mostof the stories, the protagonistshave a desiretheytrytofulfilbutthey are forcedtogive up becauseof the circumstances (family, culture, religion) thatmakeitimpossible.

  5. Epiphany in Dubliners • Epiphanyis a SUDDEN REVELATION during the character’s life. It’s a moment of spiritual awakening, whenfeelings come together and produce a newawareness. • The charactershave a more profoundunderstandingofthemselves and the situation in whichthey live butpassively continue withtheirlivesasbefore.

  6. Style • Narration - Joyce usesanexternalnarrator, but the stories are toldfrom the viewpointof the maincharacter. • Joyce uses the interiormonologue, bothdirect and indirect, so the readers are directly inside the character’s mind. Each story istoldfrom the perspectiveof a character. • Setting - All the events take place in Dublin, whichisnotonly a setting. The spiritof the city is the link between the characters. In fact, some characters in one story can bementioned in another story, creatingan interconnection in the narrative.

  7. Free indirectspeech • He uses the technique of the Free indirect Speech. • It is a third-person narration which uses some of the characteristics of third-person but with the essence of first-person direct speech. The character's voice is partly mediated by the voice of the author. Quoted or direct speech: He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. "And just what pleasure have I found, since I came into this world?" he asked. (diretto) Reported or normal indirect speech: He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. He asked himself what pleasure he had found since he came into the world. (indiretto) Free indirect speech:He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. And just what pleasure had he found, since he came into this world? (discorsoliberoindiretto)

  8. ‘The Dead’ • The Dead is the last short story in Dubliners. Itwasaddedlater and reflects Joyce’s reflections. The plot – ItstartswithanEpiphany party at the house of 2 oldunmarriedsisters, Miss Kate and Miss Julia, who are the auntsof the protagonists, Gabriel Conroy. He and hiswife Gretta are guests at this party. Thereis the representationof the Irish microcosm, itstraditions, the differentgenerations, religious and politicalbeliefs and social classes. After the party, Gabriel goes back totheir hotel and remembershis best momentswith Gretta. Whentheyreach the hotel, herealisesthatsheiscrying. Heaskswhyshe’s so sad and sheanswersit’s becauseof a songheard at the party, whichremindedherofher first lover, Michael Fureywho “diedforher”, so shetellshimtheir story. Shehadhadanepiphany. When Gretta fallsasleep, Gabriel looksoutside the window, where the snowisfalling. Hetoohasanepiphany . Herealises the insignificanceofhis life, thateverybodywillfade and beforgotten and buried under the snow, and thathis love for Gretta hasalwaysbeenshallowifcomparedtoMicheal’s.

  9. Themes • Itis the culminationof the feeling ofstagnation/paralysisofthis city. Itcombinesall the categories and all the ages and unifiesthem in the paralysis. • Itisrealistic, butalsosymbolic. The writergives a picture od the innerthoughts and feelingsand to do it, heusesindirectinteriormonologue. • Gabriel isalwaysapartfrom the otherguests. Heconsiderstheminferior, but at the end, afterhisepiphany, hereflects on hisattitude. • Timeissubjective: hearing a song, Gretta stops on the stairs and remembersheryouth and it’s asiftimewerestopped. Gretta’s auditoryepiphanycorrespondsto Gabriel’s visualepiphany: whilewatching the snowfalling, hereflects on the insignificanceof life.

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