2010 INTERNAL FAMILY SYSTEMS CONFERENCE The Brain and IFS:What’s Happening Neurobiologically That Heals Complex Trauma Stephen Greene Ph.D. October 22, 2010 Chicago, Illinois Oc
Outline • Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB) • Complex Trauma • IFS and pulling it all together
PTSD written for DSM-III and based on Vietnam Vets PTSD is not all inclusive of Trauma
Stress becomes trauma when the intensity of the frightening events becomes unmanageable to the point of threatening physical and psychological integrity Lieberman et al, 2008
Two conditions lead to traumatization: Overwhelming Fear Inescapable
Abuse Trauma (Acts of Commission) Threats of harm to self &/or others Physical abuse/violence Sexual abuse Witnessing Domestic Violence
Relationship Trauma (Acts of Omission) • Neglect • Abandonment • Loss • Repeated Separations
Simple vs. Complex Trauma • Non-interpersonal • Limited Exposure • Short Duration • Onset typically at later developmental stage • Family Support • Secure attachment • Interpersonal • Multiple Exposures: different trauma types • Longer Duration • Onset at early stage of development • Lack of family support • Insecure Attachment
Primary Impacts of severe childhood abuse and neglect • Preverbal assumptions regarding self and others • Conditioned associations between abuse stimuli and emotional distress • Implicit/Sensory memories • Narrative/autobiographical memories • Suppressed or “deep” cognitive structures • Interference in development of affect regulation/tolerance skills John Briere
Areas of Impairment • Physical biology of the individual • Attachment to others • Affect Regulation • Dissociation • Behavior Management • Cognitive Processing • Self-Concept
DISSOCIATION Dissociation is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. Certain faculties, functions, feelings, memories are split off from immediate awareness/consciousness and compartmentalized in the mind, where they become separate identities. PURPOSE: way out of intolerable or psychologically incongruous situation barrier to keep painful events / memories out of awareness analgesia to prevent feeling pain escape from experiencing event survival method used by children “Escape when there is no escape”
Other Risks Associated with Complex Trauma • At higher risk for re-victimization • Lifelong risk of interpersonal • attachment problems
INTERPERSONAL NEUROBIOLOGY (IPNB) Daniel Siegel M.D.
IPNB An interdisciplinary view of human experiences that draws on over a dozen branches of science to find the consilient findings across various perspectives to create a framework for understanding the development of our subjective and interpersonal lives. Daniel Siegel - The Developing Mind
Research from: neuroscience, attachment, memory,narrative,wisdom,emotion, perception,attention, learning, & trauma
Basic Tenets of IPNB • The Mind is a process that monitors and regulates the flow of energy and information • The Brain is the extended nervous system throughout the body that is the mechanism through which the energy and information flow • Relationships are where the energy and information are shared
Mind Brain Triangle of Wellbeing and Resilience Relationships
Mind • The Mind DEVELOPS as the Genetically Programmed Maturation of the Nervous System is Shaped by Ongoing Experience.
Mindsight is the ability for the human mind to see itself. It is a powerful lens through which we can understand our inner lives with more clarity, transform the brain, and enhance our relationships with others. Dr. Dan Siegel
IPNB: Well-Being A working definition of Well-Being: A system that connects differentiated elements into a functional whole = an INTEGRATED System When a system moves toward integration it is achieving a movement toward maximizing “COMPLEXITY.”
Emergence is the way complexsystems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions.
Emergence is central to the theories of integrative levels (Integration) and of complex systems.
Complexity Theory Principles 1) Complex systems have multiple components that are capable of becoming chaotic 2) the system is open to outside influences
3) complex systems are capable of self organization Complexity Theory Principles (cont.)
Complexity Theory Principles (cont.) 4)Integrated Complex systems are FACES FlexibleAdaptiveCoherentEnergizedStable
Complexity Theory Principles (cont.) 5. Over time complex systems either move toward more integration (FACES) or less integration (chaotic &/or rigid)
More Integrated Complex systems are FACES over time: Flexible Adaptive Coherent Energized Stable
Less integrated complex systems over time are Rigid...Chaotic...or both
The River of Integration Daniel Siegel
Chaos • intrusive thoughts • memories • hallucinations • worries • preoccupations • impulsive behavior and thoughts that distract the mind • differentiation but no linkage
Rigidity • shutdown • disconnected from body • unmotivated • depressed • repeated thoughts of obsessive nature • not able to adapt • total linkage but no differentiation
IPNB: Well-Being (cont.) An Integrated system is Flexible, Adaptive, Energetic, Coherent, Stable (FACES) Brain’s that are not integrated are either Rigid, Chaotic or both All diagnoses are either Rigid or Chaotic or Both Daniel Siegel
Brain: Some General Principles Brain’s # 1 job is survival Hierarchical Bottom up development Right-H > Left H > Frontal Lobe Brain is the social organ of the body
Brain: Some General Principles Memory embeds prior experiences in neural connections in the brain. The brain is an associational organ and matches present firing patterns with those of the past. The brain is an anticipation machine - linking the present with what it expects in the future based on experiences in the past.
The Brain is a Social Organ The structure and function of the brain is to engage with other people, other brains, in the shaping of its development over time and in shaping its activity in the present.
Neuroplasticity • Experience (Neural Activation) shapes connections in the brain via Synapse Formation (Synaptogenesis) and new Neuronal Growth
Neuroceptive State of Safety • when we are relaxed and safe it allows the system to relax and the whole being becomes receptive to interactions with others • our challenge is to create an interpersonal state of safety so neuroplasticity can be enhanced
States - wired neural networks that have been repeatedly activated together and shift relatively quickly Traits - neural states that have been repeatedly activated together, occur automatically, out of conscious control
Integration Taking differentiated neural systems and linking them into a functional whole Integration results from attuned communications/interactions
Complex systems maximize complexity by increasing linkages of differentiated components
Middle PreFrontal Cortex Daniel Siegel
The Central Role of the Integrating Middle Prefrontal Cortex: Bodily Regulation Attuned Communication Emotional Balance Flexibility Fear Extinction Empathy Insight Morality Intuition Daniel Siegel
L-H R-H brain development bottom up