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SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRY Glycogen. 2 Ways To Generate Glucose. Glycogenolysis. Gluconeogenesis. Break down of glycogen. Synthesis of glucose from non-carb precursors. Glucose 1-Phosphate. Glucose. Pyruvate. Lactate. Glucose 6-Phosphate. Energetics of Reversing Glycolysis.

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  2. 2 Ways To Generate Glucose Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Break down of glycogen Synthesis of glucose fromnon-carb precursors Glucose1-Phosphate Glucose Pyruvate Lactate Glucose 6-Phosphate

  3. Energetics of Reversing Glycolysis Reversing glycolysis is not energetically feasible! Hexokinase ∆G° = -17 kJ/mol Glucose Phosphofructokinase ∆G° = -14 kJ/mol PyruvateKinase ∆G° = -31 kJ/mol Pyruvate Ref: Rodney Boyer Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry

  4. Pyruvate to Phosphoenolpyruvate • Dilemma: • Oxaloacetate can only be generated from pyruvate in the mitochondria • Pyruvate gets synthesized initially in the cytosol

  5. PEP and Oxaloacetate Transport Fig 16-20 does not show pyruvate! Draw another viewof this process thatmay be more helpful

  6. Gluconeogenesis

  7. Energetics Revisited ∆G value comparisons By what mechanisms do these enzymes work?

  8. Pyruvate Carboxylase Cofactor

  9. Enzyme-Cofactor Complex

  10. Pyruvate Carboxylase

  11. Pyruvate Carboxylase

  12. PEPCK Mechanism

  13. Ch. 16 Overview • 16-1 Glycogen Breakdown (Fri) • 16-2 Glycogen Synthesis (Wed) • 16-3 Control of Glycogen Metabolism (Wed) • 16-4 Gluconeogenesis (Mon)

  14. Enzymes in Glycogen Synthesis • UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase • Glycogen Synthase • Glycogen Branching Enzyme

  15. UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase UDP-GlucosePyrophosphorylase activates glucosylunits PPi

  16. Glycogen Synthase

  17. Glycogen Branching Enzyme

  18. Overview

  19. PRS • Which of the following enzymes is involved in gluconeogenesis? • Pyruvate carboxylase • Pyruvate kinase • Phosphofructokinase • Glycogen synthase

  20. PRS • Which of the following is not a product of glycolysis? • Pyruvate • Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate • Oxaloacetate • Glucose 6-Phosphate

  21. PRS • Which enzyme produces glucose 1-phosphate? • Hexokinase • Glycogen Debranching Enzyme • Glycoen Branching Enzyme • Glycogen Phosphorylase

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