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Southern Renaissance and William Faulkner

Southern Renaissance and William Faulkner

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Southern Renaissance and William Faulkner

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  1. Southern Renaissance and William Faulkner

  2. Content Ⅰ. Southern Renaissance Ⅱ. William Faulkner Ⅲ. The Sound and the Fury Ⅳ.Barn Burning

  3. Ⅰ. Southern Renaissance 1. The South 2. Southern Literature 3. The Southern Renaissance

  4. Ⅰ. Southern Renaissance • The South (Geographic Range) • The Deep South: South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana • The Extended South:including also the border states such as Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Arkansas • and Texas

  5. Southern Myths • a. Chevalier heritage(骑士精神的传承) • b. Agrarian virtue(土地的价值) • c. Plantation aristocracy (种植园主) • d. Lost cause (注定要失败的势力) • e. White supremacy (白人至上) • f. Purity of womanhood • (女人的纯洁)

  6. Definition Southern Literature refers to literature about the south of United State or written by southern writers who have all tried to root their works in the south to achieve universal applicability. American southern literature reaches its summit with the appearance of the two “giants” – Faulkner and Wolfe. There are southern women writers – Katherine Anne Porter, Eudora Welty, and Flannery O’Connor.

  7. Characteristics A focus on a common Southern history, the significance of family, a sense of community and one’s role within it, a sense of justice, the region's dominant religion, issues of racial tension, land and the promise it brings, a sense of social class and place, and the use of the Southern dialect.

  8. Representatives The Southern Renaissance was the revival of American Southern literature that began in the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of writers such as Ellen Glasgow, William Faulkner, Caroline Gordon, Erskine Caldwell, Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, Tennessee Williams, and Robert Penn Warren etc.

  9. Themes 1. The Burden of History: slavery, reconstruction, devastating military defeat. 2. Conservative Culture: family, religion, and community were more highly valued than one's personal and social life. 3. Racial Issues Tone Unique feeling of guilt, failure and poverty

  10. Ⅱ. William Faulkner (1896-1962) • 1950 Nobel Prize Winner; • The most influential and critical figure in the Southern Renaissance; • Author of 19 novels and 4 volumes of short stories; • The owner of a literary kingdom Yoknapatawpha county

  11. Major Works (1) 1924~1929: training as a writer The Marble Faun《大理石雕像》 Soldier’s Pay 《士兵的报酬》 Mosquitoes《蚊群》(2)1929~1936:most productive and prolific period Sartoris 《萨托里斯》 The Sound and the Fury《喧哗 与骚动》 As I Lay Dying《在我弥留之际》Light in August《八月之光》Absalom, Absalom 《押沙龙,押沙龙!》

  12. These 13 (1931)《这十三篇》(His Short Story Collection) (3) 1940~end: won recognition in America Go Down, Moses 《去吧,摩西》 A Rose for Emily 《献给爱米丽的玫瑰》 Red Leaves《红叶》 That Evening Sun《夕阳》 Dry September《干燥的九月》 The Marble Faun 大理石牧神 (1924) A Green Bough 绿枝(1933) Two Volumes of Poetry

  13. Setting—— Yoknapatawpha Country It is a fictional county created by William Faulkner, based upon and inspired by Lafayette County, Mississippi and its county seat of Oxford, Mississippi. It is the setting for most of William Faulkner’s novels and short stories. The Yoknapatawpha saga (“约克纳帕托法世系”小说) Faulkner would often refer to Yoknapatawpha County as "my apocryphal county”.

  14. Major Themes 1. History and Race 2. Deterioration 3. Conflicts between generations, classes, races, man and environment 4. Horror, Violence and the Abnormal White owners cannot escape the defeat to which they are doomed for they have displaced the Indians and enslaved the black race, thus putting a curse upon the land.

  15. Features a. Symbolic approach b. Stream of consciousness, circular form; authorial transcendence; long sentence without proper punctuation; non-chronological order c. Multiple point of view; complex plot d. Language style: from colloquial, regional, to formal diction and cadences of American speech. e. Probe into the psychology of characters in the South f. Create anti-heroes

  16. Ⅲ. The Sound and the Fury “Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time, And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walkingshadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.” From Macbeth's soliloquy in act 5, scene 5

  17. Characters Jason Compson III   -  The head of the Compson household until his death from alcoholism in 1912. Mr. Compson is the father of Quentin, Caddy, Jason IV, and Benjy, and the husband of Caroline. Caroline Compson -  The self-pitying and self-absorbed wife of Mr. Compson and mother of the four Compson children. Caroline‘s hypochondria(忧郁症)preoccupies her and contributes to her inability to care properly for her children.

  18. Characters Quentin Compson -  The oldest of the Compson children and the narrator of the novel's second chapter. A sensitive and intelligent boy, Quentin is preoccupied with his love for his sister Caddy and his notion of the Compson family's honor. He commits suicide by drowning himself just before the end of his first year at Harvard. Caddy Compson -  The second oldest of the Compson children and the only daughter. Actually named Candace, Caddy is very close to her brother Quentin. She becomes promiscuous, gets pregnant out of wedlock, and eventually marries and divorces Herbert Head in 1910.

  19. Characters Jason Compson IV -  The second youngest of the Compson children and the narrator of the novel's third chapter. Jason is mean-spirited, petty, and very cynical. Benjy Compson -  The youngest of the Compson children and narrator of the novel's first chapter. Born Maury Compson, his name is changed to Benjamin in 1900, when he is discovered to be severely mentally retarded.

  20. Jesus Christ – the archetype of Benjy Christ’s crucifixion on Good Friday (Part 3: April 6, 1928) Christ's body laying in the tomb on Holly Saturday (Part 1: April 7, 1928) Christ’s resurrection on Easter Sunday (Part 4: April 8, 1928) Similarities 1. Born on Holy Saturday 2. Thirty-three, the same age as Christ at the crucifixion 3. His six-sense 4. Misunderstood by the earthly authority 5. Castrated vs. Crucified

  21. Characters Dilsey Gibson — the matriarch of the servant family, which includes her three children — Versh, Frony, and T.P. — and her grandchild Luster (Frony's son); they serve as Benjamin's caretakers throughout his life. An observer of the Compson family's destruction. Miss Quentin Compson — daughter of Caddy who goes to live with the Compsons under Jason IV's care when Herbert divorces Caddy. She is very wild and promiscuous, and eventually runs away from home. Often referred to as Quentin II or Miss Quentin by readers to distinguish her from her uncle, for whom she was named.

  22. Appreciate When the shadow of the sash appeared on the curtains it was between seven and eight oclock and then I was in time again, hearing the watch. It was Grandfather’s and when Father gave it to me he said I give you the mausoleum of all hope and desire; …I give it to you not that you may remember time, but that you might forget it now and then for a moment and not spend all your breath trying to conquer it. (Page 93-94) avoidance of clock and shadows River Time

  23. Barn Burning 1.The story 2.The characters Sartoris Snopes (Sarty) : an adolescent boy His father Mr. Snopes (Abner Snopes): destructive , abusive and violent, a man to be feared, still he embodies many qualities: courage, pride, and endurance Major de Spain: white plantation owner

  24. Themes 1. Conflicts Conflict between the father and son; conflict within the boy; Conflict between the plantation owner and the tenant; racial tension 2. Alienation and loneliness

  25. Style Syntax or sentence structure long sentences full of interruptions The second sentence is 116 words long and contains between twelve and sixteen clauses; its content is heterogeneous, moving from Sarty's awareness of the smell of cheese in the general store through the visual impression made by canned goods on the shelves to the boy's sense of blood loyalty with his accused father.

  26. Homework 1. Please write a "Barn Burning Review". 2. Please read Eza Pound’s In a Station of the Metro and introduce its writing style to the class.