Diabetes Mellitus By Kaisha Belkoski
What is Diabetes? Diabetes Mellitus is: A disease caused by deficient insulin release or by insulin resistance, leading to inability of the body cells to use carbohydrates.
Insulin Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas, usually after a meal. It’s goals: -inhibits the breakdown of glycogen to glucose -enhances the diffusion of glucose into tissue cells, or transports glucose. -over all, lowers blood glucose levels.
Two Types Type 1 , previously called “Insulin Dependant” Type 2, previously called “non-insulin dependant” Symptoms usually present in older people who are overweight These patients normally produce insulin but the target cells are resistant to it Many of these patients can control or manage the disease with diet and exercise. 90% of Diabetics are type 2 • Symptoms usually present early in life • Insulin producing Beta cells within the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system • Body doesn’t produce insulin • Many of these patients require insulin shots or other forms of insulin supplementing
Causes and Risk Factors(type 2) • Family History -according to statistics, if your mother was diagnosed prior to age 50 you have a 1 in 7 chance of developing Diabetes Mellitus, type 2 • Lifestyles -children learn from their parents, could develop bad habits early in life that could lead to diabetes • Excess Body Weight -Around the waist • Low activity level • Poor Diet • High Blood Pressure
Causes & Risk Factors • High Cholesterol • Low Levels of HDL Cholesterol • Certain races and ethnic backgrounds are at a higher risk • Women who have had gestational diabetes or given birth to a baby over 9 lbs. (Type 2 has a stronger link to Family History as a risk factor than type 1)
SymptomsMany people may not experience symptoms for several years before diagnosis Polyuria: excessive urine output, which leads to a decreased blood volume and dehydration Polydipsia: Excessive thirst caused by dehydration, blood vessels take on more water to try to dilute the blood which is highly concentrated with glucose. Polyphagia: Excessive hunger because there is plenty of glucose in the body, however in the a absence of insulin for transport the body cannot use the glucose for energy. Fatigue Hunger Increased Urine output Increased thirst Dehydration Blurred Vision (nerve damage) Numbness or tingling in feet (damage to capillaries) Frequent/recurrent infections
Complications • Eye, Skin, and Foot damage -mostly due to capillary damage • Heart Disease • Hypertension • Hearing loss • Amputation of extremities • Kidney Disease Diabetes is hard on the Blood vessels because of the high concentrated sugar constantly flowing through, capillaries are first affected and that is why you hear of amputations being associated with this disease.
Statistics • 8.3%, 18.8 million people in the US population have diabetes • 79 million are said to be pre diabetic • 1.9 million new cases diagnosed in 2010 • In 2007, diabetes was the underlying cause of 71,382 deaths • Diabetes causes more deaths per year then breast cancer and aids combined in the US. • 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low or middle- income countries - a healthy diet is very important in treatment and so is access to the resources to maintain the necessary diet. • 346 million people worldwide have diabetes
Treatment • First priority is to lower blood glucose levels • -some patients are put on medication to lower blood glucose • -many can manage glucose levels through diet and exercise • Main treatment is diet and exercise • -don’t have to completely cut out carbs, paying attention to portion sizes is key • (should consume no more then 45g of carbs per meal, about 150 per day) • -Smaller, more frequent meals are ideal to help maintain ideal glucose levels • -Fiber slows the uptake of glucose • -Exercising helps to burn off extra glucose • -a brisk 20 minute minute walk is enough to lower glucose levels by • 60-80 points if you are running high • When diet and exercise aren’t enough, patients may be put on medication • to help maintain lower blood glucose levels • It is important to monitor blood glucose regularly
Meal PlanDay 1 Daily Total: 112 g of Carbohydrates
Meal PlanDay 2 Daily total: 98 g of Carbohydrates
Meal PlanDay 3 Daily Total: 136g of Carbohydrates
Questions • What role does insulin play in the body? • What is the most important treatment to diabetes type 2? • List 2 symptoms of diabetes.
Questions/Answers • What role does insulin play in the body? -lowers blood glucose levels, transports glucose. • What is the most important treatment to diabetes type 2? -Diet and Exercise • List 2 symptoms of diabetes. -Fatigue, hunger, thirst, increased urine output, dehydration, numbness in extremities, blurred vision, or frequent infections
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