African-American History from the Civil Wa r to the Present - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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African-American History from the Civil Wa r to the Present

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  1. African-American History from the Civil War to the Present dr. Liz Bryant

  2. US During the 1850s • Lots of tension over slavery • South • Wants slavery to expand • Economy is totally dependent on slavery

  3. US During the 1850s • North- wants slavery to stop • Abolition • Gradualists • Immediatists • Key: this does not mean that Northerners believe African-Americans should be EQUAL; they just felt they shouldn’t be slaves

  4. Election of 1860

  5. Lincoln’s Beliefs • He was anti-slavery BUT did not want to abolish slavery immediately • Thought it should end gradually

  6. But the south did not trust lincoln

  7. The Secession Crisis • Deep South followed: • 12/20/60 South Carolina • 01/09/61 Mississippi • 01/10/61 Florida • 01/11/61 Alabama • 01/19/61 Georgia • 01/26/61 Louisiana • 02/01/61 Texas

  8. Map of Dates of Secession

  9. Become the Confederate States of America

  10. War!!!!

  11. Goals during War • South • Want to keep slavery • North • Want to keep the Union intact

  12. Emancipation Proclamation

  13. Emancipation Proclamation • Freed slaves only in areas that had seceded from the United States (no jurisdiction) • Used as a justification for the war • Why doesn’t Lincoln free all the slaves?

  14. Blacks in the Military

  15. Blacks Served in the Navy

  16. Gideon Welles • Secretary of Navy • Authorized enlistment of black soldiers • BUT: • Highest rank was “boy” • Paid less than whites

  17. James Lane • Authorized blacks in calvary • These were the first blacks in combat • Blacks could not become officers

  18. Recruiting African-Americans

  19. 1863- Large Scale Registration of Black Soldiers

  20. 54th Massachusetts

  21. Colonel Robert Shaw

  22. Differences in the Way Troops Were Treated • Pay • Blacks= $10 a month (minus $3 for clothes) • Whites= $13 a month (plus 3.50 clothes allowance) • Black volunteers could not receive $100 bounty • Blacks could not become commissioned officers

  23. Black POWs • Were not treated as enemy combatants • Were to be treated as slaves and taken to the South and sold

  24. White Officers of Black Troops • Confederacy called for the death of all white officers working with black troops (1863)

  25. Black Soldiers • Took part in 450 battles • 154 regiments • 12% of Union forces • 186,017 served/ 68,178 died • Mortality rate= 40%

  26. reconstruction

  27. Canons Conquer But They Do Not Necessarily Convert • Post-War South: Economy is destroyed

  28. Many Plans for Reconstruction • Lincoln (Presidential) • Johnson • Radical

  29. Different Goals for Reconstruction • Lincoln- wants to reunite North and South as quickly as possible • Radical Republicans- want to punish the South

  30. Issue: What Is Going to Happen to the 4 Million Freedmen

  31. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • Known as Presidential Reconstruction • 10% of Southerners had to take a loyalty oath • After oath, states could draw up new constitutions that • Abolished Slavery • Provided education to freedmen

  32. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • Pretty easy on the South

  33. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • No mention of civil or political rights for African-Americans

  34. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • Criticized by the Radical Republicans in Congress for being too lenient

  35. Wade-Davis Bill • Passed by Congress • Required 50% of Southerners to take an “ironclad” oath to the Union • Vetoed by Lincoln

  36. Lincoln’s Fate

  37. Andrew Johnson

  38. Andrew Johnson • Lincoln’s Vice President • Southern • Democrat • Not well-educated

  39. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction • Key: Johnson was concerned with uniting the white north and the white south • Did not care what happened to African-Americans

  40. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction • Did not require common men to take a loyalty oath • Only planters with over 20,000$ had to request a presidential pardon • All states had to ratify the 13th Amendment before being allowed back into the Union

  41. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction

  42. 13th Amendment

  43. 13th Amendment • What actually ended slavery in the United States

  44. The Radical Republicans • Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner • Wanted to do more for African-Americans • Constantly challenged Johnson

  45. Thaddeus Stevens

  46. Charles Sumner

  47. Goals of the Radical Republicans • Punish the South • Help African Americans

  48. Why were the Radical Republicans So Angry? • Confederate leaders were back in power • Emergence of Black Codes

  49. Alexander Stephens