CONTENT • Introduction • Properties of material • Classification of material • Different types of material stone,brick,lime,cement,metal,ceramics,timber,sand,aggregate,mortar,Concrete, paints and varnishes ,glass ,plastic, Composites.
Introduction 1) Naturally available material - Clay /earth/soil -Wood/Timber -Sand/Fine aggregate -Rock 2) Artificial materials cement , brick , steel, tiles , ceramic , paints and varnishes glass , plastic , stone , lime.
Properties of material • Toughness • Strength • Compressive strength it is a mechanical property of material. The ability of a material to withstand stress due to compressive forces on it, without fracture is called compressive strength force/load force/load • Plasticity, Elasticity, Stiffness, Ductility, Fatigue, Creep, Mach inability. Cast ability,Workability,Malleability,Brittleness,Heat capacity,Specific heat,Thermal conductivity,Permeability,Coercive force,hysteresis
Stone • Requirements of stone • 1)Structure: they may be crystalline or amorphous . Unstratified rocks are good as building stones. • 2) Appearance-colour texture: stones of light shades may be preferred to dark coloured stones. Red and brown coloured. • 3)weight: light weight stones are preferred for domes and arches. • 4) Fitness of grains : non- crystalline stones are difficult to handle and liable to be disigntegrated. • 5) durability: stone must have the property to resist loads, chemical action of atmosphere ,rain ,water ,snow etc.
Types of stone: The stones are obtained from various rocks. The types of rocks are as below. Rocks may be classified on the basis of geological formation are types of stones Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks
Uses of stones • In foundations, walls , columns, arches, blocks etc. • In hydraulic structures like dams and bridges. • In retaining wall masonry to retain soil. • As ballast for permanent way in railways. • To make concrete in the form of coarse aggregate.
Properties of stones • Hard and durable • Marble and quartzite have compact crystalline structure. • Acid resistance • Compressive strength. Importance of stones. • In masonry • In wall • In natural beds with horizontal direction.
Brick Bricks are rectangular blocks made from clay. • Composition of brick: The clay should be free from pebbles, gravel, alkalies, organic matter, vegetation and iron pyrites.
Requirements of bricks • Colour of brick is red copper and uniform. • Edges should be sharp. • Free form organic matter , salts ,etc. • There should be metallic ringing sound. Importance of bricks • For walls of various building construction. • Brick flooring provides skid resistance with economy. • Used in lintel and column construction also they are light in weight. • Clay products ,hence eco friendly ,cheap and easily available.
Types of bricks (1) Conventional / Traditional bricks: Size: 23 cm X 11.4 cm X 7.6 cm (2) Standard / Modular : Size : 19 cm X 9 cm X 9 cm • Bricks are classified as per manufacturing: (1) Hand moulded (ground or table moulded) (2) Machine moulded (wire cut) • Bricks are classified as per quality and utility: (1)1st class (grade A) (2) 2nd class (grade B) (3) 3rd class (grade C) (4) 4th class (grade D)
Uses of brick • Bricks are used in wall masonry construction of building. • Bricks are used in brick lintel construction. • Bats of bricks are used in concrete in foundation work.
Properties of Bricks • Properties of brick Physical mechanical thermal Durability Shape size colour density porosity compressive flexural water strength strength absorption heat sound insulation insulation
Requirements of good lime: -Not contain impurities. -Provide good plasticity and workability. -Set easily. -Moisture resistant. -Slake easily with water. -Low shrinkage. Properties of lime -Lime possesses good plasticity. -Goodworkability. -Good adhesion with masonry. -Stiffens quickly. -Good resistance to moisture. -Low shrinkage.
Types of lime • Hydraulic lime • Fat lime • Poor lime Importance of lime • Lime is a cementing material. • Lime provides a cheap and a reliable alternative to cement. • Lime is used to bind sand to prepare lime mortar for masonry work. • Lime is important to prepare B.B.L.C.(bricks bats lime concrete)for foundation of buildings.
Uses of lime -Lime is used in the treatment of water and wastewater. -It is used in the manufacture of glass, refractory, sand lime bricks and paints. -It is used as lime mortar for masonry work of buildings. -It is used for plastering and white washing of buildings. -It is used as lime concrete to make water proof structures.
Cement • Cement is a product obtained by burning a well proportioned mixture of siliceous(containing silica), argillaceous(containing alumina) and calcareous (containing lime) materials and crushing the same into grey colour fine powder. • Ingredients of cement
Manufacturing of cement • For manufacturing there are two method 1)Dry process 2)Wet process • Stages 1)Mixing of raw materials 2)Burning in rotary kiln 3)Grinding in boll mill and tube mill 4)Packing in jute or gunny bags 5)Storage
Requirements of cement • Found cool when touched by hand. • Fine powder form while checking with first finger and thumb. • Types of cement 1)Normal setting or ordinary Portland cement(opc). 2)Rapid hardening Portland cement. 3)Quick setting cement. 4)Pozzuolana Portland cement(PPC) 5)Low heat cement 6)Blast furnace cement 7)white cement 8)Sulphate resisting cement 9)Coloured cement
Uses of cement • Used to prepare cement mortar for building construction works like masonry , plaster ,painting, flooring etc.
Setting of cement • Hardening of cement is different than setting of cement. Time required for setting depends upon: 1)Temperature 2)Percentage of water added 3)Humidity of the atmosphere • initial setting time of cement shall not be less than 30 to 60 minutes and final setting time shall not be more than 10 hours. • Importance of cement -An important binding material. -Binds fine and coarse aggregates to prepare cement concrete. -Cement mortar fill joints of bricks and stones in wall masonry construction. -On smooth and rough plaster painting work is easier and economical.
Requirements of metal: -Provide sufficient strength to bear the loads coming on them. -Provide resistance to corrosion and weather actions. -Provide resistance to fire and heat. -Good adhesion with cement concrete.. • Types of Iron: -Hematite(red oxide) -Magnetite(black Oxide) -Siderite(carbonate) -Limonite(brown hematite) -Pyrite(sulphide)
Types of metals • Metals will be grouped in the following two categories: • 1) ferrous metals: They contain iron as main constituent types : 1)pig iron 2)cast iron 3)Wrought iron 4)steel • 2) non- ferrous metals: They not contain iron as main constituent.
Importance of metal • Metals are obtained from Fe. • Iron is the most popular metal and it has been used in construction. • Used in galvanizing and to make pipes. • The strength and life of building depend upon stability and durability of R.C.C. structures. in bridge metals used in large way
Ceramics Ceramic is a material consisting of components of metallic and non-metallic elements.
Requirement of ceramic • Provide resistance to stains. • Easy to clean. • Non- slippary while wet. • Durable. • Easy to handle and not so heavy in weight. Properties of ceramic • Ceramics are hard , strong and dense material. • Low ductility. • Good resistance to corrosion. • Stable in environment • Electric insulators.
Types of ceramics crystalline Glass-bonded Non-crystalline Single phase ( MgO , CaO ) These are natural and synthetic inorganic glasses. The crystalline phase are held in glassy matrix. Binary phase (FeO-MgO) Ternary phase
Uses of ceramics • Bricks • Tiles • Pipes • Chimney • Insulators • Dental implants • Cement • Radar domes • Transmitter • Optical equipments
Importance of ceramic • Cement- a ceramic material is widely used in building construction. • Glass- a ceramic material is used as shelves, decorative articles,etcis important building material. • Transparent ceramics provide visibility in case of door, window glass in various building for inhabitants. • The water and waste water pipes and fittings are important in building construction. • The maintained clean surface of ceramics are giving new look at every instance.
TIMBER Timber is a natural building construction material obtained from trees.
Requirements of timber • Dark uniform colour. • Dense. • Workable, good machinability. • Uniform texture. • Freshly cut log surface should emit sweet smell. • Free from crakes, splits, warp, etc. • When it is struck, it should produce a sonorous sound.
Types of timber Natural Industrial Babul Bamboo Banyan Neem Mango Teak Pine Palms Veneers Plywood Fiberboards Impreg timbers Compreg timbers
Uses of timber • Railway sleepers • Bridges • Pipes • Furniture • Packing material • Decorative pieces • Doors and windows • Matchbox • Boat • Roofs • Lintels and arches • Flooring • Partition wall • Rafters
Properties of timber • Low heat conductivity. • Small bulk density. • Relatively high strength. • It’s volume changes with moisture content. • Long life. Importance of timber • Used as walls, columns, beams, doors and windows in building construction. • Easy to transport due to lesser weight and easy handling. • Used in furniture decoration of buildings.
Advantages Disadvantages • Easy to cut and reshape as per desired dimensions. • Locally available. The workers of woodwork easily available. • Useful to make door, window, ventilator and furniture of building in construction. • Catches fire easily. • Can be affected by termite. • Not suitable for heavy loads and multistoried structures.
SAND Sand particles consists of small grains of silica.
Requirements of sand • Clean , free from organic and vegetable matter. • Contain sharp, angular and durable grains. • Well graded. • Not contain salts which attract moisture from the atmosphere. • Maximum permissible clay content is 3 to 4% in sand.
Types of sand Natural Artificial Artificial sand is formed by decomposition of sandstone due to various weathering effects. Natural sand is obtained from pits, river beds and sea beds.
Uses of sand • Useful in various construction activities like masonry work, plaster work, flooring and concrete work.
Properties of sand • Naturally available material. • Durable. • Mix with binding material easily. • Shiny luster. • Whitish brown colour. Importance of sand Sand-fine aggregate is the important material for construction work. It prepare cement mortar and cement concrete by mixing with cement like binding material. They fill up the voids in between coarse aggregate pieces in cement concrete.
AGGREGATES Aggregates are the naturally occurring material like sand, crushed rock and gravel.
Requirements of aggregate • Sufficiently strong, hard, tough and durable. • Aggregate surface should be rough and free from cracks. • Good soundness. Uses of aggregate • Fine aggregates are used to prepare cement mortar, lime mortar and cement concrete. • Coarse aggregates are used to prepare cement concrete (PCC, RCC) , etc. • Fine aggregates are used in masonry, plaster, flooring, etc. work in building construction.
Types of aggregate Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Size of aggregate is 80mm to 4.75mm is termed as coarse aggregate. Size of aggregate is 4.75 mm or less is termed as fine aggregate.