Biosocial Development Newborn to two-years
Brain Development • “use it or lose it” • Babies are born with 100 billion neurons: nerve cells, but the networks of axons and dendrites between these establish few connections
Transient Exuberance • Exuberance: the sheer magnitude of growth in neural connections • Transient: rate of growth of connections slows as child grows older and overtime, unused connections atrophy and disappear.
Myelination • Proceeds most rapidly from age 4 and continues through adolescence, allowing children to gain increasing neurological control over their motor functions and sensory abilities and facilitates their intellectual functioning as well.
Experience • A key factor in brain development • A certain minimal level of stimulation for each of the senses in need for these connections to be established optimally. • Cognitive and emotional experiences during this time can foster later language development
Low birth weight factors • Smoking • poverty • problems associated with innercity
Nourishment Issues • Undernourishment: weight gain more slowly than expected, illness, vitamin deficiencies • Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to impaired hearning. • Overfed infants are fed too much of what they do not need, is associated with slower motor skill development and health problems later in life.
Convenience Sterile Body temp. Easier to digest Fewer upset stomachs, digestive problems, and allergies. Decreases ailments More nutritious: iron vitamin C, A antibodies to protect against flues, measles, polio , etc. Hormones to aid brain development and decrease pain. Advantages of Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding • Recommended for at least one year for all babies except those with HIV, malnourished or drug using mothers • Primary food for first six months • Bottle feeding is still more popular • Nestle example:
Breastfeeding to table food • At about 6 months, solid foods are introduced • Cereals and then other foods slowly introduced • Avoid wheat , honey, and sugar for first year
Cognitive Development • Read Chapter 6, concentrating on behavioral objectives.
Poverty in the U.S. Effects on the pregnant mother, developing fetus and infant.