Chile “Republica de Chile”
Flag and Coat of Arms • The star represents a guide to progress and honor. • Blue symbolizes the sky. • White is for the snow covered Andes. • Red stands for blood spilled to gain independence. • Was designed in 1834 by Charles Wood Taylor • Condors are the most prominent bird in Chile. • The hemul is a rare mammal in Chile. • The two animals are wearing the Navy’s crown that symbolizes the heroic deeds of the Navy. • The feathers resemble the hats Presidents used to wear and the motto “Por la razon o la fuerza” means “By right or mind” and is the national motto.
Geography • Chile spans along most of the western border of South America. • Total area is 292, 260 square miles. • Slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana. • Extends approx. 2,700 miles north to south. • The southern tip of Chile, Cape Horn, is only 400 miles North of Antarctica. • Average width of the country is only about 110 miles. • Peru and Bolivia border it to the North, Argentina to the East, and the Pacific Ocean to the West. • The capital of Chile is Santiago • The Andes mountains run along basically all of Chile. Since the country is so big, the climate is very diverse.
History-1(Pre-Colonial Period) • Before the Spanish conquest of Chile about 500,000 Indians inhabited it. • Spanish conquest of Chile began in 1536-1537. • Diego de Almagro and Francisco Pizarro invaded Chile in search of “Another Peru.” • They found neither gold nor civilization so returned back to Peru. • In 1540-1541 Pedro de Valdivia returned and conquered and colonized the area. • In 1553, the Araucanian Indians rose up in revolt and killed Valdivia. • The Chilean conquest was finally completed by Governor Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza during the late 1550’s.
History-2(Colonial Period) • Settlers could not find many valuable metals so they turned to agriculture. • In 1600 the Mestizo culture started to grow rapidly and was one of the most prominent in the region. • In 1758 courses were opened at the University of San Felipe in Santiago and attracted various students throughout the Andes region. • Intellectual life in Chile during the period developed slowly.
History-3(Struggle for Independence) • September 18, 1810 local leaders were elected at a town meeting to start the movement towards gaining independence from Spain. • On October 1-2, 1814 Jose Miguel Carerra and his brothers, who desired complete independence from Spain fought in the Battle of Rancagua lost and moved to Argentina. • Jose de San Martin raised an army to try and defeat the Spaniards to gain independence. • Finally after many years of struggle Chile gained its independence on February 12, 1818.
Chile is split up in three major zones: the northern desert region, central Mediterranean zone, and humid-cool southern region. • Chile crosses 38 degrees of latitude allowing it to have many climates. • If snow falls in central Chile it doesn’t stay on the ground for more than a couple hours. • During the summer cold sea winds keep temperatures down and don’t allow heat waves. • North of 27 degrees south latitude there is virtually no rainfall. • Average rainfall in Santiago is 13 inches a year. • Volcanic eruptions, volcanic earthquakes, tsunamis, are all common. Climate
Government • Republic of Chile • President Michelle Bachelet (March 2006) • President is head of state and government • Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches • Senate has 38 seats and is bicameral • Chamber of Deputies has 120 seats. • Supreme Court judges are appointed by the senate every three years.
Economy • GDP: $ 202.7 billion (2006) • GDP per capita: $12,6oo (2006) • 6.94 million labor force • 7.8 % unemployment rate. • 18.2% population below poverty line. • Agricultural products include: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches etc… • Industries include: copper and other minerals, fish processing, iron and steel, cement, and textiles. • $58.21 billion in exports. • Trade partners: U.S.A., Argentina, Japan, and Brazil. • Currency is the Chilean Peso.
Population • Population is 16,284,741 (2007) • Average age is 30.7 years old; 29.8 male, • and 31.7 female. • Birth rate is 15.03/1000 population. • Death rate is 5.87/1000 population. • Life expectancy is 76.96 years old; 73.69 for males, 80.4 for females. • White and White Amerindian 95%, Amerindian (native) 3%, Other 2%.
Education • 95.7 % Literacy Rate • Primary and High School education is mandatory for Chilean students. • Education is free and public. • Primary school is from 5-13 years of age. • Secondary school is from 13-18 years of age. • - University Selection Test to get into college. (University of Santiago)
Sources "Chile." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 4 Oct. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-24697>. CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html