Hofstede Cultural Framework - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hofstede Cultural Framework

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  1. Hofstede Cultural Framework • Power Distance • Individualism vs. Collectivism • Masculinity vs. Femininity • Uncertainty Avoidance • Long Term Orientation

  2. Power Distance • “...the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.”

  3. Power Distance at Work • Hierarchy • Centralization • Salary range • Participation • Ideal Boss • Privilege & status symbols

  4. Individualism vs. Collectivism • Individualist societies: ties are loose and everyone looks out for himself or herself • Collectivist societies: people integrated into strong, cohesive groups; protection is exchanged for loyalty

  5. Individualism / Collectivism at Work • Employee-employer relationship • Hiring and promotion decisions • Managerial focus • Task vs. relationship priority

  6. Masculinity vs. Femininity • Masculine societies: social gender roles are distinct (men focus on material success; women on quality of life) • Feminine societies: social gender roles overlap (both quality of life)

  7. Masculinity / Femininity at Work • Centrality of work • Ways of managing & decision making • Fem: equality, solidarity, quality of work life • Mas: equity, compete, performance • Conflict resolution

  8. Uncertainty Avoidance • “…the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.” • NOT the same as risk avoidance • Presence of rules

  9. Uncertainty Avoidance at Work • Necessity of rules • Time orientation • Precision & punctuality • Interpretation of “What is different…” • Appropriateness of emotional displays

  10. Long term orientation Confucian Dynamism • The ‘newest’ dimension • three universal dimensions and two fourth dimensions • Truth vs. Virtue: What one believes vs. What one does

  11. Short-term orientation Social pressure to ‘keep up with the Joneses’ small savings expect quick results concern with possessing Truth Long-term orientation Thrift: being sparing with resources large savings perseverance toward slow results concern with respecting the demands of Virtue Confucian Dynamism

  12. Idiosyncrasies of North American Management Theory • Stress on Market Processes • Stress on the Individual • Stress on Managers rather than Workers