Media Planning and Strategy How do I Effectively Use Mass Media to Deliver My Message?
Media Planning • Purpose: to conceive, analyze, and select channels of communication that will direct the advertising message to the right people in the right place at the right time! • Where should we advertise? • Frequency? • Timing?
The Media Plan • Establishing Media Objectives • Determining Media Strategy (Media Mix) • Determining Market Coverage • Determining Reach vs. Frequency • Scheduling
Establishing MediaObjectives • use broadcast media to provide coverage of 80% of the target market over a 6 month period • reach 60% of the target audience at least 3 times over the same 6 month period • concentrate the emphasis of the campaign over the November-December buying season
Developing MediaStrategy • Variety is the spice of life • Various media each offer different advantages • The Best Media Mix • Depends on overall communication objectives • combining media forms can add versatility, increase coverage, reach and frequency levels
Vehicles vs. Media • Media • general channels of communication • i.e., newspapers, magazines, TV, radio • Vehicles • specific placement choices • i.e., Roseanne, ER, Seinfeld, Vogue, NPR programming
Major Media Categories • TV • Radio • Newspapers • Magazines • Out-of-Home
The Print Media Why Should I Spend My Money Here?
What Are My Options? • Magazines • examples: Good Housekeeping, Time, Life • Newspapers • Local: The Huntsville Times • National: The Wall Street Journal
Magazines- Advantages • Flexibility in readership- regional, national interest areas • Color - excellent reproduction of high quality • Authority and Credibility - can include alot of information as well as glitter • Permanence - longest shelf life of all outlets • Prestige - image of the magazine rubs off on the product!
More Advantages • Audience Selectivity - most targeted option available to marketers • Selling Power - results have been documented • Cost Efficiency - minimized wasted coverage • Reader Loyalty • Pass-Along Circulation
Magazines - Disadvantages • Inability to deliver mass audiences • Long Lead Times • Clutter • High CPM • Declining Circulations • Frequency Problems • Shallow Geographic Coverage
Magazine Categories • Content • Consumer Magazines: Time, Life, National Geographic • Farm Publications: Progressive Farmer • Business Magazines: Trade publications, professional magazines • Geography • local • regional • national
Magazine Categories • Size • Large: Life • Flat: Time • Standard: National Geographic • Small: TV Guide
Circulation Factors • Guaranteed Circulation - number expect to circulate • Primary Circulation - number people buy through subscription or newsstand • Secondary or Pass along - give it away!
Pros Mass Medium Comprehensive Scope Geographic Selectivity Timeliness Credibility Selective Attention Creative Flexibility Active Medium Cons Lack of Selectivity Short Life Span Low Production Quality Clutter Must pay for preferred position to guarantee placement Overlapping Circulation Newspaper Advertising
Display Advertising includes copy, illustrations, photographs, graphics, etc. Classified Ads copy only Co-op Advertising share responsibility between channel members Public Notices Preprinted Inserts sales promotions, coupons, contests, etc. Types of Newspaper Ads
Out-of-Home • Oldest Form of Advertising - often referred to as ‘outdoor advertising’ • Delivery Modes include: billboards, blimps, transit ads, etc. • Expenditures are approaching $1.7 billion
Poster Panels vs. Painted Bulletins Panels are silk screened - ranging in size from 6’2” by 12’’2” to 12’3” by 24’6” Painteds- directly painted and leased for 1-3 years Broad reach/high frequency Geographic Flexibility Low CPM Can be a last reminder for products like fast food, shopping venues, etc. product identification is easy! Billboards
Out-of-Home Negatives • nonselectivity • minimal exposure time • difficulty in measuring audience • environmental concerns • limited use of copy
The Broadcast Mediums • Television • cable • network • National vs. Local • Radio • FM • AM • National vs. Local
Television • Broadcast TV (Network) - 1100 Stations • UHF • VHF • Cable TV • Examples: BET, CNN, MTV, superstations • Who’s Advertising Here? • Proctor and Gamble • GM, Philip Morris
Television Advantages • reach the masses • can be both local or national • most dramatic form of advertising • best suited for products that require demonstration or stimulation of emotion
More TV Advantages • Prestige • highly visible firms use this medium • Impact • immediacy, demos, sound and color interaction • Creativity • Some Selectivity • Low Cost
Disadvantages of TV • Very High Cost of Production • Media Time at a Premium • Selectivity and targeting Difficult • Brevity of Message • Clutter • Zipping and Zapping
Selectivity Younger, more affluence audience, more innovative Very low cost Flexibility time for infomercials Testability Limited Reach Fragmentation Quality Zipping and Zapping Pros and Cons of Cable TV
Types of TV Advertisements • Network Advertising • 4 major networks, erosion of audiences • convenient and efficient coverage • can buy spots , participations or sponsor • Cable Advertising • interconnect for regional coverage • syndicated programs, infomercials • Local TV Spots
How Do I Buy TV? • Dayparts • decide on the time of day to air commercial • viewing highest during primetime • must choose vehicle • Dayparts • Daytime 9 a.m. - 4 p.m.. • Late Fringe 11:00p.m. - 1:00 a.m. • Remainder Early Fringe
Radio • Who Listens? 96% of U.S. population • Youth the greatest audience! • Often a distraction or background noise • FM or AM • AM audiences growing faster than FM • Talk Radio!
Image Transfer Selectivity Cost Efficient Timely Medium Geographically Flexible Reach and Frequency listen average 3x a day No Visuals! Segmented Audiences over Stations with Similar Formats Distraction Clutter Push Button! Pros and Cons of Radio
Buying Radio Time • Networks • lack of flexibility and choice of stations • national coverage • Local Radio • spots: live or taped • local personalities can assist in credibility • Dayparts: Morning and Evening Drive Time Desirable (6-10 a.m.; 3-7 p.m.)
Interactive Advertising Media • Entails reciprocal behavior • CD-Rom • Virtual Reality • The Internet • Interactive 800 numbers • Kiosks
Alternatives for the Interactive Soul • CD-Rom - limited by households with the PC capability great for tourism • Virtual Reality - can visualize the product and its demonstration in 3D • Internet - growing access to the WEB - can promote products, catalogs, firms here to catch surfers
Determining MarketCoverage • Includes both Target Audience coverage and Geographic coverage • Which types of media and vehicles are favored by my target audience? • Must understand circulation, reach, and profile of various media alternatives • What geographic areas do we need to cover? • May choose to weigh some areas more heavily • Example: promos for Disney World are concentrated heavily in the Southeast
Determining Reach vs.Frequency • Reach • the percentage of the target population exposed at least once to the advertiser’s message within a predetermined time period • It is the number of different audience members exposed at least once • Program ratings (see Arbitron or Nielsen) give a measure of reach • Frequency • Average # of exposures to the message per target audience member during the same time period • how many times the exposure could take place
Reach vs. Frequency • Frequency • Established brands • Brands with well-defined target markets • Brands with low market shares • Brands with strong competition • Brands with complex messages
Reach vs. Frequency • Reach • New brands • Brands with ill-defined target markets • Brands with high market share • Brands with loyal customers • Brands with simple messages
Useful Measures • Gross Impressions • the sum of all audiences of all the vehicles used in a designated time frame • GRPs • reach X frequency • based on the total audience that might be reached (duplicated)
Useful Measures • Wearout a function of the creative elements and the copy! • Cost per thousand (CPM) • Cost of the ad space (absolute) x 1,000/circulation • Cost per rating point (CPRP) • cost of commercial time/program rating
How Do We Determine Optimum Reach vs Frequency? • 1 exposure during a buying cycle is virtually useless • often then, central goal frequency over reach • two-three exposures an effective level per purchase cycle • beyond three exposures, within the brand purchase cycle (4-8 weeks) continues to build effectiveness at a decreasing rate
E. Scheduling • Must time promotional efforts so they will coincide with the highest potential buying times. • Aperture - moment of receptiveness in the consumer • often the problem recognition stage • Cover Continuity Issues
Continuous Pattern advertising runs steadily throughout the campaign period used for products purchased regularly Flighting Pattern alternates periods of advertising with periods of no advertising used for products with fluctuating demand (tax help, seasonal products) Pulsing Pattern mixes continuous and flighting strategies low level maintained all year, periodic pulses Continuity Patterns
Continuous Pattern • Advantages • serves as a constant reminder • covers the entire buying cycle • allows for media priorities (quantity discounts, preferred locations, etc..) • Disadvantages • higher costs • potential overexposure • limited media allocation possible
Flighting Pattern • Advantages • cost efficiency of advertising only during purchase cycle • may allow more mediums with smaller budget • weighting may offer more exposure and advantage over competitors
Flighting Schedule • Disadvantages • increased likelihood of wearout • lack of awareness, interest, retention of promotional message during nonscheduled times • vulnerability to competitive efforts during nonscheduled periods
Pulsing Patterns • Advantages • same for previous two methids • Disadvantages • not required for seasonal products (or other cyclical products)
Additional Patterns • Bursting • same commercial every half hour on the same network • Roadblocking • all three networks bought simultaneously • Blinking • stretch a slim budget • once a week BLINK