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Cellular, Element, and Molecular Building Blocks of Living Systems

Cellular, Element, and Molecular Building Blocks of Living Systems

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Cellular, Element, and Molecular Building Blocks of Living Systems

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  1. Cellular, Element, and Molecular Building Blocks of Living Systems Mohamed Bingabr, Ph.D.Associate ProfessorDepartment of Engineering and Physics University of Central Oklahoma

  2. BME and Cells • Cells are the building blocks of living systems. • BME application in the Cellular level • Nerve Cell Stimulation • Genetic Therapy • Tissue Engineering • Nanomedicine • Protein Synthesis and Detection

  3. BME and Chemistry • Why should biomedical engineers understand chemistry? • Manipulate molecules to create new tools and solve problems • Synthesize lipid molecules into liposomes to carry anticancer drug and gene therapy. • Better understanding of molecules interaction. • Properties of proteins that form plaque (Alzheimer’s disease)

  4. Molecular Composition of a Cell • 70% water • The remaining 30% water-free basis • 50% by weight Carbon • 14% Nitrogen • 4% Phosphorous • Others • Protein and Amino Acids • 60% of water-free mass

  5. Chemical Bonding (1) • Bonding between atoms and molecules • Atomic Bonding • Molecular Bonding • Atomic Bonding • Ionic Bonds: electron transferred from one atom to another (Na+Cl-) • Covalent Bonds: result from the sharing of one electrons (H2)

  6. Chemical Bonding (2) • Molecular Bonding: occur between molecules and weaker than covalent bonding. • Hydrogen Bonding: Partially positive hydrogen atom in a polar molecule is attracted to a slightly negative atom (O, N, or F) • van der Waals interactions: Temporary and unequal electron distributions around atoms.

  7. Chemical Bonding (3) • Chemical bonding forms a three-dimensional active protein molecule from a long macromolecule of amino acids.

  8. Biochemical Energy Macromolecules Glycogen Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Food • Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction in which water is a reactant and energy is realized. ATP Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

  9. Macromolecules Polymers: Large molecules formed by the bonding of many smaller chemicals, called monomers.

  10. Polyethylene Macromolecules

  11. Sizes of Macromolecules

  12. Polymers of Biological Importance • Polysaccharides • Composed of small sugars called monosaccharides • Nucleic Acids • Composed of nucleotides • Protein • Composed of amino acids • Lipids

  13. Polysaccharides Source of Energy

  14. Polysaccharides Carbohydrates

  15. Nucleic Acids • Polymers of nucleotides • Provide a mechanism for storage of genetic information.

  16. Organic Bases in DNA Thymine Base (T) Adenine Base (A) Guanine Base (G) Cytosine Base (C)

  17. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  18. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • Function of DNA: • Contains all the instructions for producing every molecule currently in the cell (protein). • Could have some future use if environmental conditions change or differentiation occurs.

  19. Proteins • Proteins are the working molecules of cells, performing thousands of functions that are essential for the life of the cell and the organism. • Protein Functions: • Structure components of cells and tissues • Channels for transport molecules through biological barriers • Elements in communication systems • Recognition elements in the defense against infection • Chemical catalysts (Enzyme) • Muscle Contraction

  20. Muscle Contraction

  21. Proteins Proteins are polymers of about 20 amino acids (the monomer).

  22. Amino Acids

  23. Proteins Productions Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide chain. Polypeptides are polymers of amino acids.

  24. Proteins Productions

  25. Home Pregnancy Test • Purify proteins • Immobilize proteins to synthetic materials (test strips) • Proteins in test strips change color if certain hormones related to pregnancy are present in the urine.

  26. Lipid • Fairly large molecules that do not dissolve in water. • Lipid used in cell membrane structure.

  27. Lipid: Structure of Cell Membrane

  28. Transport Across Cell Membrane

  29. Cellular Physiological Lifestyle Animation of Inner Cell Life with Music: Animation of Inner Cell Life with Explanation:

  30. Homework 2 (due Feb 17) Search the internet and provide your thoughts on the following: It has been proven scientifically that genes deficiency effect the physical appearance of the body and the mental ability in thinking and analysis. Does genes effects behavioral performance such as evilness and goodness, violence and calm, hate and love?