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Plant and Fungi Evolution

Plant and Fungi Evolution

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Plant and Fungi Evolution

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  1. Plant and Fungi Evolution

  2. Figure 26.1 Some major episodes in the history of life

  3. Figure 29.1

  4. Chara species, a pond organism 5 mm Coleochaete orbicularis, adisk-shaped charophytethat also lives in ponds (LM) Figure 29.3 40 m

  5. Red algae Figure 29.4 Includes Volvox ANCESTRALALGA Chlorophytes Viridiplantae Charophytes Streptophyta Plantae Embryophytes

  6. Key Gamete from another plant Haploid (n) Gametophyte(n) Figure 29.5a Diploid (2n) Mitosis Mitosis n n n n Spore Gamete FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS Zygote 2n Mitosis Sporophyte(2n) Alternation of generations

  7. Spores Sporangium Figure 29.5c Longitudinal section ofSphagnum sporangium (LM) Sporophyte Gametophyte Sporophytes and sporangia of Sphagnum (a moss)

  8. Table 29.1

  9. 3 1 2 1 3 2 Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 425 mya) Figure 29.7 Origin of extant seed plants (about 305 mya) Liverworts Nonvascularplants(bryophytes) ANCESTRALGREENALGA Land plants Mosses Hornworts Lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts) Seedlessvascularplants Pterophytes (ferns,horsetails, whisk ferns) Vascular plants Gymnosperms Seed plants Angiosperms 500 350 450 400 300 50 0 Millions of years ago (mya)

  10. Figure 29.15 Bryophytes

  11. Sperm Antheridia “Bud” Malegametophyte(n) Key Figure 29.8-3 Haploid (n) Protonemata(n) Diploid (2n) “Bud” Egg Gametophore Spores Archegonia Sporedispersal Femalegametophyte(n) Rhizoid Peristome FERTILIZATION Sporangium Seta (within archegonium) Zygote(2n) MEIOSIS Capsule(sporangium) Mature sporophytes Embryo Foot Archegonium Youngsporophyte(2n) 2 mm Capsule withperistome (LM) Femalegametophytes

  12. An Anthoceroshornwort species Figure 29.9b Sporophyte Gametophyte

  13. 3 1 2 1 3 2 Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 425 mya) Figure 29.7 Origin of extant seed plants (about 305 mya) Liverworts Nonvascularplants(bryophytes) ANCESTRALGREENALGA Land plants Mosses Hornworts Lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts) Seedlessvascularplants Pterophytes (ferns,horsetails, whisk ferns) Vascular plants Gymnosperms Seed plants Angiosperms 500 350 450 400 300 50 0 Millions of years ago (mya)

  14. Figure 29.21 Pteridophytes: club "moss" (top left), whisk fern (top right), horsetail (bottom left), fern (bottom right)

  15. Figure 29.11 Xylem and phloem in the stem of Polypodium, a fern (a pteridophyte)

  16. Figure 29.11 The stem of Polypodium, a fern (a pteridophyte)

  17. Developingleaves Apical meristemof shoot Apical meristems of plantroots and shoots Figure 29.5e Apicalmeristemof root Shoot Root 100 m 100 m

  18. Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Antheridium Spore(n) Younggametophyte Figure 29.13-3 Sporedispersal MEIOSIS Rhizoid Undersideof maturegametophyte(n) Sporangium Sperm Archegonium Egg Maturesporophyte(2n) Newsporophyte Sporangium Zygote(2n) FERTILIZATION Sorus Gametophyte Fiddlehead (young leaf)

  19. Figure 30.1

  20. 3 1 2 1 3 2 Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 425 mya) Figure 29.7 Origin of extant seed plants (about 305 mya) Liverworts Nonvascularplants(bryophytes) ANCESTRALGREENALGA Land plants Mosses Hornworts Lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts) Seedlessvascularplants Pterophytes (ferns,horsetails, whisk ferns) Vascular plants Gymnosperms Seed plants Angiosperms 500 350 450 400 300 50 0 Millions of years ago (mya)

  21. Figure 30.5e Common juniper Douglas fir Sequoia European larch Wollemi pine Bristlecone pine

  22. Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Ovule Ovulate cone Megasporocyte (2n) Figure 30.6-4 Integument Pollen cone Microsporocytes (2n) Megasporangium (2n) Mature sporophyte (2n) Pollen grain Pollen grains (n) MEIOSIS MEIOSIS Microsporangia Microsporangium (2n) Surviving megaspore (n) Seedling Archegonium Female gametophyte Seeds Food reserves (n) Sperm nucleus (n) Egg nucleus (n) Seed coat (2n) Pollen tube Embryo (new sporophyte) (2n) FERTILIZATION

  23. Basal Angiosperms Figure 30.13a Star anise Water lily Amborella trichopoda

  24. Eudicots Figure 30.13d Dog rose California poppy Pyrenean oak Snow pea Zucchini

  25. Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics Embryos One cotyledon Two cotyledons Leaf venation Figure 30.13e Veins usually parallel Veins usually netlike Stems Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Vascular tissue scattered Roots Taproot (main root) usually present Root system usually fibrous (no main root) Pollen Pollen grain with one opening Pollen grain with three openings Flowers Floral organs usually in multiples of three Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five

  26. Stigma Carpel Stamen Anther Style Filament Ovary Figure 30.7 Petal Sepal Ovule

  27. Tomato Ruby grapefruit Figure 30.8 Nectarine Hazelnut Milkweed

  28. Wings Figure 30.9 Seeds within berries Barbs

  29. Microsporangium Anther Microsporocytes (2n) Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) MEIOSIS Microspore (n) Generative cell Ovule (2n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain) (n) Tube cell Figure 30.10-4 Ovary Pollen grains Germinating seed MEIOSIS Stigma Megasporangium (2n) Pollen tube Sperm Embryo (2n) Surviving megaspore (n) Seed Endosperm (3n) Seed coat (2n) Antipodal cells Style Female gametophyte (embryo sac) Central cell Pollen tube Synergids Egg (n) Nucleus of developing endosperm (3n) Sperm (n) Egg nucleus (n) Zygote (2n) FERTILIZATION Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Discharged sperm nuclei (n)

  30. PLANT GROUP Mosses and other nonvascular plants Ferns and other seedless vascular plants Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) Reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Gametophyte Dominant Figure 30.2 Reduced, dependent on gametophyte for nutrition Sporophyte Dominant Dominant Gymnosperm Angiosperm Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside ovulate cone Sporophyte (2n) Sporophyte (2n) Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers Gametophyte (n) Example Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside pollen cone Sporophyte (2n) Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

  31. Figure 31.1

  32. Reproductive structure Figure 31.2 Hyphae Spore-producingstructures 60 m Mycelium

  33. Figure 31.3 Cell wall Cell wall Nuclei Pore Septum Nuclei (b) Coenocytic hypha (a) Septate hypha

  34. Hyphae 25 m Nematode Figure 31.4 (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Fungal hypha Plantcellwall Plant cell Plant cellplasmamembrane Haustorium (b) Haustoria

  35. Figure 31.6 1.5 m

  36. Figure 31.20

  37. Figure 31.27 Staphylococcus Penicillium Zone ofinhibitedgrowth

  38. A foliose(leaflike) lichen Crustose(encrusting) lichens Figure 31.23 A fruticose (shrublike) lichen

  39. Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungalhyphae Algallayer Figure 31.24 50 m Fungal hyphae Algal cell

  40. (b) Tar spotfunguson mapleleaves Figure 31.25 (a) Corn smut on corn (c) Ergots on rye