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ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS:. THE CASE OF TURKEY. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS: THE CASE OF TURKEY. Today’s Impending Issues related to energy … Climate change and mitigation needs Energy import dependency and energy supply security Increasing energy prices Limited energy resources.
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ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS: THE CASE OF TURKEY
ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS:THE CASE OF TURKEY Today’s Impending Issues related toenergy… Climatechangeand mitigationneeds Energyimportdependency andenergysupplysecurity Increasingenergyprices Limitedenergyresources
Energyconsumption in Turkey… • 2009 Final Energy Consumption 80,6MTOE • 2009 Electricity Consumption 156,9 GWh (excludinglossandtheft) and the share of buildings…. • primary energy 29,5 MTEP (36,6 %) • electricity consumption 71,2 GWh (43,4 %)
Breakdown of Energy Use in Buildings… In Turkey, around 80 % of energy consumption comesfrom conventional fuel use and 78 % of energy in buildingsis used for“heating/cooling” and “hot water” needs.
Breakdown of Energy Use in Buildings… 24 % naturalgas 24 % electricity 20 % renewables 17 % hard coal 10 % lignite 5 % other Severalstudiesshow 30-45 % savingspotentialbyapplyingproperinsulationtechniques, newheating/hot watertechnologiesandsimilar EE applications
So, whyEnergyEfficiency… • Lowcost/no costinvestmentoptionsfor GHG mitigation • Highsavingspotential • Reducingenergyimportdependency • Povertyalleviation
whybuildingssector… • Keydrivingeconomicsector • Thelargestenduser of energy • Employmentopportunities • Improvedqualityof life
Options for energy efficiency in buildings… 1) Buildingorientation, form, thermalmass : Minimise exposure to sun; clustering; reflectivematerials; shading; insulatingconcrete 2) Buildingenvelope: The shell of the building as a barrier to heattransfer – insulation; air leakages; window-towallarearatios; windowproperties 3) Passivesystems: Heating; cooling; ventilation (e.g. courtyards,operablewindows, earth-pipecooling); daylighting 4)Appliances: Boilers; chillers, refrigerators, washingmachines, etc.; office equipment; 4 lighting 5) Systems: Separate controls for different lighting zones & radiators; ambient lighting; meters 6) Behaviour: Switchingoffappliances; standbymode; acceptedtemperaturenorms
Barriers to energy efficiency in the buildings sector… BarrierCategories: 1) Financialcosts / benefits 2) Hiddencosts / benefits 3) Market failures 4) Behaviouralbarriers
In 2003 theEuropeanParliamentaccepted Directive 2002/91/EC on theEnergyPerformance of Buildings(EPBD), aimed at greenhouse gasemissions reduction and compliance inenergyrequirementsbetweentheMemberStates.
The main requirements of theEPBD are: • Toharmonizeenergycalculation methods based on an overall energyperformance. • To set minimum energy requirements for new construction and largerefurbishments. • Compulsory boiler/heating and airconditioninginspections.
The main requirements of theEPBD are: • A mandatory energy certificate for new and existing buildings when they are constructed, sold or rented, so that the certificate must not be more than 10 years old and carried out by independent and qualifiedexperts. • In addition to detailing the current energy efficiency level of the building, the certificate must also include recommendations for cost-effective improvements in energyperformance. • Energy certificates have to be displayed in public buildings.
TheEnergyCertificate • One of the four key elements described in the Directive is the introduction of energy certificates for the existing building stock. The Directive leaves it open for each Member State to decide whether to combine the energy certificate with economic policy instruments, or to use it only for communication purposes. • The energy certificate can, therefore, be seen as a tool that can be used in combination with different types of policyinstruments.
GENERAL POLICY FACTORS • Energy price and carbon tax, rebates for green electricity • Banning products like boilers that are not energy efficient • Carbon emissions trading (and household carbon allowances) • Correction of the housing market failure • Encouraging downsizing: compensation for large households • Active support to the use of renewable energy sources • Government lead in policy
EE policies in Turkey… 2004 - ENERGY EFFIENCY STRATEGY 2007 - ENERGY EFFIENCY LAW 2008 -2009 - SECONDARY LEGISLATIONS REQUIRED BY EE LAW 2011 – REVISED EE STRATEGY
EnergyEfficiencyLaw… Target: Reducing the energy intensity by 15% by 2020 Focusesmainly on manufacturingindustry, transport,services and buildings, power sector (generation,transmissionanddistribution). EE Law • Trainingandawareness • Administrativestructure • Incentivesfor EE&RE Penalties
ESCOswithinthelaw… • Institutionalandfinancialsupport • So, alternative contract models are needed • Performanceguarantees • Profitsdepends on energysavings • Risks… So, alternative contract models are needed
How about EE regulations & policies in buildings… Law on Energy Efficiency and 4 by-laws • By-law on Sharing the Heating and Domestic Hot Water • Expenses in Central Heating and Hot Water Systems in Buildings • By-law on Improving Energy Efficiency for the Utilization ofEnergyandEnergyResources • By-law on Energy Performance of Buildings • Regulation on Appointment of Energy Managers in Schools
By-law on Energy Performance of Buildings… Thepurpose… • Efficientuse of energy, • Effectiveenergysaving, • Alleviatingenvironmentalconcerns, • Compliancewithrelevant EU directives. Themeans… • Buildingdesign, • HVAC, • Hot water, • Automationsystems, • Electricalinstallationsandlighting, • Use of RE, heat pumps and cogeneration systems. New buildings over 20.000 m210 %
New buildings D classEnergyIdentityCert. and CO2 rating EnergyClassEnergyCons. A 0-39 B 40-79 C 80-99 D 100-119 E 120-139 F 140-174 G 175-……
Current Situation of New Buildings in Turkey… • Between 2000 and 2008, 650,000 new buildingsreceivedconstructionpermits • 520,000 receivedoccupancypermits— nearly a millionbuildings • By 2008, Turkey’s skylines almost 8.4 millionbuildings, not includingunregisteredor illegal construction
Outdated Materials, Equipment, andDesign… •Materials (out-dated and the methods toinstallthem ad-hoc) •Equipment (obsolete from the moment it is installed) •Locally-madeequipmentperforms at halfas-listed •Design: architects and engineers work in sequence •No consideration of bioclimatic features, passive or active energysaving tactics, or consideration of an integrateddesignapproach
“On TheirOwn” • Design details (for installing the mandatoryinsulation) are not drawn by architects • “Builders just work it out themselves” • Universities do not teach energy efficiency • Few trainings aimed at workingprofessionals • Building designers and builders are “ontheir own” in how to implement the newenergyefficiency (EE) laws
New buildings also operate “on their own” • Facilities staff—if there--untrained in energy management • 228 trained energy managers serving half amillion buildings (every 5 years) • Legally, new buildings must comply w/ TS 825 • Compliance is undocumented (8 Turkishauditorstrained—nonecertified) • If there were building auditors (only 10trained certifiers to give certificates) • 8 staff in EIE dedicated to energy efficiency in newbuildings
PotentialSavings New Buildings… • Turkey could achieve US$500 millionin savings in just one year from EE innewbuildings • 5,000 GWh of power left within thesystem to be used to meet growingconsumerdemand • Turkey’s buildings will not be EEwithout significant interventions for allstakeholders, realisticandactionablestrategiesforimplementers, andbusiness-casessufficientlyrobusttoengagetheprivatesector
So… • Establishingtheproperfinancialstructure • Removal of barriersbefore EE • Strongpoliticalwill, aggressivepoliciesandactions
Whatto do… • Improving the regulations and transposition ofrelevant EU directives • Strengthening the implementation of BEP standardsand reinforcing the inspection structure • Capacity building and increasing awareness • Discrete EE programs and action plans for newbuildings and existing building stock
Introducing a new concept for the design of the newbuildings, • Show casingreplicableapplications, • Mainstreaming the new concepts into public buildings, • Formulating new financial mechanisms for EEapplications, • Monitoring.
OverallObjective: Raiseenergyperformancebuilding standards, improveenforcement of buildingcodes, improvebuilding management and introduce the use of integrated building design to Turkey
Outcomes… 1) Improve energy efficiency in new buildings throughinstitutions, regulations, andimplementers 2) Introduce “Integrated Building Design Approach (IBDA)” toTurkey 3) Review and develop tools to facilitate the enforcementof the building energy efficiency standards/regulations 4) Monitoring, learning, adaptive feedback and evaluation