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Preschool Reading and Writing: Essential Elements of Emergent Literacy

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Preschool Reading and Writing: Essential Elements of Emergent Literacy

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  1. Preschool Reading and Writing: Essential Elements of Emergent Literacy Marilyn Astore Language & Literacy Consultant California Preschool Instructional Network

  2. What is Emergent Literacy? • Skills, knowledge and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional reading and writing Whitehurst and Lonigan (1998) in Landry, Lonigan and Shanahan (2005)

  3. Definitions of Emergent Literacy(Continued) • Skills and abilities linked to later outcomes in reading, writing and spelling • Basic building blocks for learning to read and write

  4. Alphabetic Knowledge Oral Language Concepts About Print RAN (Rapid Automatic Naming/Lexical Access) What Elements of Emergent Literacy Strongly Predict Future Success in Reading and Writing? • Phonological • Awareness • Writing/Name • Writing • Invented • Spelling Landry, Lonigan and Shanahan; Lonigan (2006)

  5. What Areas Are the Strongest Predictors? Lonigan (2003, 2006)

  6. Conventional Literacy: The Reading/Writing Connection • Expressive • Spelling • Composition Receptive • Automatic, Fluent Decoding • Reading Comprehension Landry, Lonigan and Shanahan

  7. The Emergent Reading/Writing Connection • “Assessing children’s writing provides useful indicators of their level of print development and their understanding of the sounds of language.” • Moats (1998) in Paulsen, et al • “Research has shown that writing leads to reading achievement.” • Braunger, Lewis and Hagans (1999) in Paulsen, et al (2001), p. 260

  8. The Emergent Reading/Writing Connection(Continued) • Experiences such as making lists, writing notes and messages, planning menus and writing their names, as well as the names of other family members, encourage children to experiment and interact with print. • These experiences help children to gain a better understanding of how speech can be represented with print. Paulsen, et al

  9. The Emergent Reading/Writing Connection(Continued) • There is a striking parallel in the developmental sequence that children go through as they learn to say the sounds in their language and when they learn to write the sounds of our language. Paulsen, et al

  10. Why is This Connection Significant ? • “In alphabetic writing systems, decoding texts involves the translation of units of print (graphemes) to units of sound (phonemes), and writing involves translating units of sound into units of print.” Lonigan (2003)

  11. How Does the Reading/Writing Connection Develop? • Children learn about literacy beginning in the earliest years by observing and interacting with readers and writers, as well as through their own attempts at reading and writing. • The breadth, depth and nature of children’s engagement with text greatly affects their development of literacy learning. Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S. and Griffin, P. (1998), p. 44

  12. Development of the Reading/Writing Connection (continued) “…Even with scribble and non-phonetic letter strings, children appear to be exploring features that they abstract about print…” Snow, Burns and Griffin, p. 59

  13. Development of the Reading/Writing Connection (continued) “Late in the second year or early in the third many children produce reading-like as well as drawing-like scribbles and recognizable letters or letter-like forms.” Snow, Burns and Griffin, p.57 During the latter part of this period, children will often label and comment about what they have illustrated. Snow, Burns and Griffin, p.59

  14. Development of the Reading/Writing Connection (continued) • Between three and four years of age, children continue to experiment with writing by scribbling, forming random letter strings and shapes that resemble letters. • Some four year olds begin to identify salient sounds in words and can demonstrate this knowledge in their writing through the use of invented spelling. Snow, Burns and Griffin

  15. A Major Developmental Milestone • “The child’s first written representation of a word using only its beginning consonant is a dramatic moment in the evolution toward literacy. • “ At this point, the child has a rudimentary understanding that letters stand for the sounds of language, though this understanding is probably based on the letter’s name rather than its sound.” Roberts, B. in S.B. Neuman and K.A. Roskos (1998), p.43

  16. How can early childhood staff and families nurture preschoolers’ growth in their attempts to read and write? Share your ideas with a partner. Encouraging Emerging Readers and Writers

  17. Shared Writing: A Key Strategy to Connect Reading and Writing • Shared writing (The Language Experience Approach) is an excellent way for helping “children to realize that what they say can be written down in print and that print can be read back ...” • “Shared writing also presents opportunities for teachers to demonstrate the structure and conventions of written language.” Vukelich, C. and Christie, J.(2004), p.9

  18. Shared Writing Activities • “Daily News” or “Morning Message” • Dictated Stories, Ideas or Experiences for individual or class books • “Surprise Box”-- Large box covered with paper; teacher records children’s guesses about what is in the box and and reads them out loud to class

  19. Shared Writing Activities (Continued) • “Take-Home Bear”- Stories about what child did with bear when he/she took it home-dictated to a family member or to the teacher the next day. • Quilt Stories-Dictated Stories framed individually with wallpaper strips and mounted together to produce a giant class story quilt. Moomaw, S. and Hieronymus, B. (2001)

  20. Linking Reading and Writing In Thematic Play Areas

  21. Grocery Store Veterinarian’s Office Home Center Post Office Airport/Airplane Library Business Office Restaurant Play settings that reflect real-life reading and writing situations: Vukelich and Christie

  22. Role of the Teacher • Stage managers (gathering, making props and organizing materials, talking with children about their plans, etc) When teachers are directly involved, children learn more about reading and writing then when they are playing alone or with others. Teachers can be: Vukelich and Christie

  23. Role of the Teacher (continued) • Co-players (joining in the play) • Play leaders (extending and enriching play episodes) • “When teachers act as stage managers and add reading and writing materials to all their classroom centers, they coax young children into engaging in reading and writing behaviors.

  24. Role of the Teacher (continued) • “When teachers go a step further and become co-players and play leaders, they can provide children with meaningful reading and writing opportunities. • “Through such play, children practice the important reading and writing skills.” Vukelich and Christie, p.35

  25. Supporting Emergent Literacy at the Writing Center • What kinds of materials should be available? • Discuss with a partner.

  26. Support at the Writing Center • Time spent by teachers in the center: key to children’s progress Baldridge and Segal • Extensive opportunities for exploration and practice: essential for encouraging emerging writers Barone, D.M., Mallette, M.H. and Xu. M.H.(2005) • Choice: important for children to decide about their topics, materials, purpose and length of time spent on a piece of writing Barone, Mallette and Xu

  27. Introducing Preschoolers to Letter Forms • Looking at letters gives young children some information about the lines used to form those letters. • Watching an adult form a letter provides preschoolers with more information.

  28. Introducing Preschoolers to Letter Forms(continued) • The teacher can play an alphabet clue game with children in a small group by writing a letter, one line at a time, on a large sheet of plain paper and asking the children to guess what letter he/she is going to make. If a long, vertical line is drawn, they might guess T or F or H . The teacher continues adding lines, telling the children when he/she has given them the last clue. Children may initiate games such as this in the writing area after playing with the teacher. Schickedanz

  29. Supporting Preschoolers’ Attempts to Write Letters “A good way to help children learn to write letters is to let them begin with the first letter of their own name.”Baldridge and Segal, p.224 Next Step: Try remaining letters in name. Reminder for Adults: Do not critique letter reversals done by preschoolers! Baldridge and Segal

  30. Useful Materials for Letter Writing • Shaving Cream • Playdough (rolled out for finger “writing”) • Cornmeal (in a cardboard box lid)

  31. Models for Copying • Plastic Letters • Letter Cards • Tracing Over Models with Finger: A Multisensory Scaffold

  32. Strategies for Supporting English Learners and Children With Special Needs

  33. Support for Preschool English Learners • Review the recommendations outlined on pp. 68 and 89 of Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning.

  34. Supporting Children with Special Needs DR access Adaptations • Augmentative or alternative communication • Alternative mode for written language • Visual supports • Assistive equipment • Functional positioning • Sensory support • Response fluency • Alternative response mode DRAFT

  35. Directions for activity Review your group’s information, and at the chart paper brainstorm some additional strategies for promoting the development of emergent reading and writing.

  36. Nurturing Reading and Writing Readiness at Home • Children see their parents reading regularly and enjoying it. • There is an abundance of all types of literature available--newspapers, magazines, novels, children’s books, etc. Bishop, A., Yopp, R.H. and Yopp, H.K. (2000)

  37. Nurturing Reading and Writing Readiness at Home(continued) • Visiting the local library is a weekly family routine. • Children are read to regularly, including books that focus on important moments in their lives---a new puppy, an important outing, birth of a sibling, nightmares, visits to the doctor, etc.

  38. Nurturing Reading and Writing Readiness at Home(continued) • “…Homes that encourage reading and writing by having paper, pencils, crayons and even chalkboards readily available…are developing characteristics in children that will allow them to enter school with confidence.”

  39. Nurturing Reading and Writing Readiness at Home (continued) • “…Many children write before they begin reading. Parents who encourage their children to experiment with writing often are helping them ease into reading. • “However, these parents do not expect perfect handwriting, spelling or grammar. They are very accepting of their child’s attempts to write.” Bishop, Yopp and Yopp, p.10

  40. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home • Help your child learn to recognize her name in print. • As she watches, print the letters of her name saying each letter as you write it. • Display her name in special places in your home. • Encourage her to spell and write her name.

  41. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home (continued) • “Point out words and letters everywhere you can. • “Read street signs, traffic signs, billboards, and store signs. Point out certain letters in these signs. • “Ask your child to begin naming common signs and find some letters.” Armbruster, Lehr and Osborne (2003), p.22

  42. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home (continued) • “Have your preschooler use her way of writing--perhaps just a scribble, to sign birthday cards or make lists. • “Reading and writing support each other. The more your child does of each, the better she will be at both.” • U.S. Department of Education (2002), p. 25

  43. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home (continued) • “Hang a family message board in the kitchen. Offer to write notes there for your child. Be sure that she finds the notes left there for her. • “Ask your preschooler to tell you simple stories as you write them down…”

  44. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home (continued) • Write with your child. She will learn a lot about writing by watching you write. Talk with her about your writing so that she begins to understand that writing means something and has many uses.

  45. Strategies That Foster Print Knowledge and Emerging Writing at Home (continued) • “Help your child write notes or emails to relatives and friends to thank them for gifts or to share her thoughts. Encourage the relatives and friends to answer your child.” U.S. Department of Education, pp. 25-26

  46. Families as Partners in Literacy • How do you structure opportunities for sharing strategies that support children’s early literacy development with families from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds? • How do you ensure that the home language of families is valued in the fostering of young children’s development as emergent readers and writers? • Discuss with a partner.

  47. Assessment: What Emergent Writing Reveals about Emergent Literacy • Use Measures 30 and 31 of Desired Results-R, to analyze what these measures demonstrate about preschoolers’ letter and word knowledge and emerging writing skills.