Grade 7 Science Unit 1: Interactions within Ecosystems
What is an Ecosystem? Complete the activity on page 5: What is an Ecosystem?
What is an Ecosystem? • What is found in an ecosystem? • Animals and Plants • An organism is any living thing, such as a plant or animal.
What is an Ecosystem? • Places where organisms live are called habitats. • Everything that is needed for an organism to survive would be found in a habitat.
What is an Ecosystem? • Non-living things that affect organisms are called abiotic factors. • What are some examples? • Water, rocks, sunlight, and air
What is an Ecosystem? • Living things that are found in an environment are called biotic factors. • Organisms are biotic factors. • How do animals affect each other? • Feed each other • Compete with each other • Help each other
Activity: Abiotic & Biotic Factors • Cards placed into correct category
What is an Ecosystem? • An ecosystem is all the living and non living things in a particular place. • How large is an ecosystem? • Ecosystems can be very large, like the ocean or forest, • or they can be very small, like under a log or a nest in a tree.
What is an Ecosystem? • There are four ecosystems in Atlantic Canada: • Coastlines and oceans • Brown seaweeds, barnacles, mussels, starfish, rock crabs • Water currents affect temperatures and climate • Larger animals include cod, seals, and whales • Salt content affect organisms • Deep water prevent sunlight from reaching bottom
What is an Ecosystem? • Freshwater: Rivers, Lakes and Ponds • Fish such as whitefish and sticklebacks • Beavers, muskrats, ducks, and geese • Frogs, insects, snails • Water plants • Rain and snow supply water
What is an Ecosystem? • Arctic • Northern Labrador • Very low temperatures and little precipitation • Permafrost: soil is always frozen one metre below the surface • Low shrubs, mosses, lichens and small flowers • Caribou, musk ox, wolves, arctic foxes, arctic hares, lemmings • Birds during spring and summer
What is an Ecosystem? • Forests • Much of Newfoundland and Labrador • Summers cool and winters wet • Balsam fir, white birch, black spruce, mountain ash • Moose, caribou, black bear, lynx, red fox, pine marten, mink • Sometimes bogs and marshes • Peat (buildup of decaying plant matter)
Activity: Foldable • Create a foldable showcasing the ecosystems found in Newfoundland.
What is an Ecosystem? • Most plants and animals have a range of tolerance. • Range of Tolerance is the range of conditions within which an organism can live. • Ex: heat, light, water, etc. • Range of tolerance is the factor that determines where organisms live.
What is an Ecosystem? • Abiotic Factors: • 1. Light and light intensity • All plants need light to survive. • Some plants need more light than others. • Animals can survive in dark and light areas.
What is an Ecosystem? • 2. Temperature • All animals and plants have a certain temperature that they need to survive.
What is an Ecosystem? • 3. Soil • Plants get nutrients from the soil. • Plants grow roots into soil. • Animals form tunnels for air and water to move through.
What is an Ecosystem? • 4. Air and Wind • Windy areas can affect plant growth since these areas tend to be dry. • Plants usually grow shorter than normal. • Animals that fly can also be affected by the wind.
What is an Ecosystem? • 5. Water • All organisms need water to survive. • Some organisms can survive with smaller amounts of water.
What is an Ecosystem? • What are biotic factors? • Ecologists study ecosystems by first studying a species. • A species is a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce similar, fertile organisms.
What is an Ecosystem? • When only one organism is studied, that is an individual. • When many organisms of the same species live in the same ecosystem, they make a population. • A group of populations which interact and share a common ecosystem form a community. • What populations are there in Clarenville?
Habitat versus Niche • Habitat: the organism’s address; where does it live? • Ex. A moose’s habitat is the boreal forest.
Niche • Niche: the organism’s job; what role does the organism play in its environment. It includes: • where it lives • how it obtains food • how it affects its environment
Niche • Ex. A moose lives in the boreal forest, it is a herbivore (plant eater), it provides a home for parasites and it provides food for coyotes.
ActivityThink About It... Seabirds! p. 26 • Complete the dichotomous key