Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Nursing Growth and Development Nurs. 321 Second lecture Ali Hassan Abu Ryala 2010-2011
Biophysical Development Theory Arnold Gesell (1880-1961)
Arnold Gesell Theory • Arnold Gesell was psychologist • Arnold Gesell’s theory based on his observations of children as related to their physical growth. • Although each child’s pattern of growth and development is unique, this pattern is described by the activity of the genes. • Arnold Gesell belief that a child has to interact with nature in order to fully develop and reach its potential. • He fathered the theory of Maturation, which is the inner plan that is developed by the action of the genes.
Arnold Gesell Theory...cont • Gesell studied children’s development with intense observation and believed that children are a bi-product of their environment and their internal make-up. • What he believed is that there are sequences to a child’s inner development that start from conception and continue well after birth. • He stressed that a child definitely needed the social environment to realize his or her potential but it should compliment the inner maturational principles. • He absolutely opposed teaching things to children that they were not ready to handle, and felt it was important that children were not rushed into stages that posed a threat to their internal growth.
Arnold Gesell Theory ...cont • The challenge that Gesell faced was unraveling the mystery behind the precise mechanics of how the inner maturation worked. • He was only able to guess the approximate timing based on his observations. • The genes control maturation, and the genes determined the sequence, timing, and form of emerging patterns that promote growth in children. • Gesell was a strong supporter of studying patterns; he felt that it helps determine the process by which actions became organized. • He believes that all normal children go through the same sequences, but at their own pace.
Arnold Gesell Theory ...cont • He believed that this pace is also driven by the child’s temperament and personality that is associated with their genes and social environment. • When it came to child rearing he felt that parents needed to fully understand the laws of maturation so that they would not force children into any of their own preconceived patterns that is not naturally apart of the child’s inner make-up. • Lastly he felt that teachers should adjust their instruction to the student’s age, grade, growth rate, and their special talents and abilities. • This will allow for the child’s inner maturation pattern and the social environment to work together
Psychoanalytic/ Development Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud Theory • Sigmund Freud was the first person to provide a formal theory of personality development. • Two internal biological forces essentially drive psychosocial change in the child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies. • Motivation for behavior is to achieve pleasure and avoid pain created by these forces. • The basis of fraud’s theory of development is derived from that the sexual energy of the "id" finds different sources of satisfaction stages of psychosexual development. • Freud’s psychoanalytic model of personality development has 5 psychosexual developmental stages associated with different pleasurable zones serving as the focus for gratification and bodily pleasure.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Stage one: Oral (birth – 12mounths) • Infant gets pleasure from sucking and oral satisfaction (swallowing) • Oral receptive personality: when the child continue to seek the pleasure through the mouth; overeating and smoking. • Oral aggressive personality: when oral pleasure is frustrated the child become verbally hostile others
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Stage two: Anal (1-3 yrs) • The focus of pleasure changes to the anal zone • Through the toilet-training process the child is asked to delay gratification in order to meet parental and social expectation. • Anal retentive: if the child has excessive punishment for failure during toilet training, the child is satisfied from holding back feces to show neatness. • Anal expulsive: child gains pleasure from expelling the body’s waste products . • If the child is over satisfied in this stage he will defecate at inappropriate time and show messiness.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Stage three: Phallic or Oedipal (3-6yrs) • The genital organs become the focus of pleasure • The time of imagination and as the child fantasizes about the parent of opposite sex as his\her first love interest (Oedipal or Electra complex) • By the end of this stage the child attempts to reduce this conflict by identifying with parent of the same sex in away to win recognition and acceptance.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Stage four: Latency (6-11yrs) • Sexual urges, from the oedipal stage, are repressed and channeled into productive activities that are socially acceptable; school work, riding bicycle, &playing. • Within the educational and social worlds of the child, there is much to learn and accomplish.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Stage five: Gentile (Puberty thru Adolescence): • Sexual desires and interests are directed toward one’s pears. • Adolescent Boy girlfriend • Adolescent Female boyfriend • A time of turbulence when sexual urges reawaken and are directed to an individual outside the family circle. • The beginning of a mature adult where sexual and aggressive "id" motives are transformed into energy for marriage and occupation.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont N.B: These stages must be satisfied enough, if satisfied the person will become emotionally mature if no the person will find difficulty and unresolved conflicts at any stage appears through dreams or thoughts and inappropriate emotions.
Sigmund Freud Theory...cont Weakness of Freud theory • Based on limited sample • Little empirical support • Freud’s critics contend that the people are more influenced by their life experiences than by their sexual energies • Freud based assumptions such as the oedipal complex are not applicable across different cultures
Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson 1902-1994
Erik Erikson Theory • Eriksson's theory consist of eight stages of development. • Erik Erikson explains eight stages through which a healthy developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. • In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. • Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. • The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future
"The individual change from stage to other stage by achieving development tasks of each stage"
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust • The first stage of Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. • Because an infant is totally dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. • If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. • Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. • Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • The second stage of Erickson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. • Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. • However, Eriksson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's, Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. • Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. • Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt • During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. • Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. • Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority • This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. • Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. • Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. • Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion • During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. • Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. • Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation • This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. • Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. • Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. • Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. • Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. • Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 7 - Generatively vs. Stagnation • During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. • Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. • Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
Erik Erikson Theory...cont Psychosocial Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair • This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. • Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. • The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. • Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. • Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. • These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
Questions???? Thank You All