Managing Conflict and Negotiating Chapter Eleven
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO11.1 Define the term conflict, distinguish between functional and dysfunctional conflict, and identify three desired outcomes of conflict. LO11.2 Define personality conflicts, and explain how they should be managed. LO11.3 Discuss the role of in-group thinking in intergroup conflict, and explain what can be done to avoid cross-cultural conflict. LO11.4 Define work-family conflict and describe what can be done to manage it.
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO11.5 Explain how managers can program functional conflict, and identify the five conflict handling styles. LO11.6 Identify and describe at least four alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques. LO11.7 Draw a distinction between distributive and integrative negotiation, and explain the concept of added-value negotiation.
Major Trends that Make Conflict Inevitable • Constant change • Greater employee diversity • More teams (virtual and self-managed) • Less face-to-face communication • Global economy with increased cross-cultural dealings
A Modern View of Conflict • Conflict • process in which one party perceives its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict • Functional conflict • characterized by consultative interactions, a focus on the issues, mutual respect, and useful give and take. • Also called constructive conflict • Dysfunctional conflict • threatens organization’s interests.
Question? As a manager of a forty-five person department, Connie has always heard that there are certain situations that produce more conflict than others. She is interested in learning about these situations so she can carefully read early warnings and take appropriate actions. Which of the following is not an antecedent of conflict? • Inadequate communication • Organizational simplicity • Decision making by consensus • Unmet expectations
Desired Outcomes of Conflict • Agreement • Stronger relationships • Learning
Major Forms of Conflict • Personality conflict • interpersonal opposition driven by personal dislike or disagreement.
Major Forms of Conflict • Workplace incivility • low-intensity deviant behavior intended to harm the target person in ways that violate norms of mutual respect. • rudeness or a lack of regard for another person
Question? Having taken this OB class and learned about how they deal with personality conflict, what tip(s) would you offer to employees having a personality conflict? • In resolving conflict, focus on personalities. • Bring co-workers into the conflict so you have witnesses. • Communicate directly with the other person to resolve the perceived conflict. • Keep the direct supervisor out of the conflict loop, especially if the dysfunctional conflict persists.
Intergroup Conflict • Intergroup conflict • conflict among work groups, teams, and departments • Too much cohesiveness can breed groupthink because a desire to get along pushes aside critical thinking
Handling Intergroup Conflict • Contact hypothesis • the more the members of different groups interact, the less intergroup conflict they will experience • Managers should identify and root out specific negative linkages between groups
Question? Don is an Executive VP of a regional health-insurance company. He has noticed that the different departments do not work well together and seem more concerned with “protecting their turf” than in working to reach organizational goals. Don thinks that if he can create some group activities, the departments will have less conflict. This is called _________. • Convex theory • Concave hypothesis • Contact hypothesis • Intergroup theory
Research Lessons for Handling Intergroup Conflict • The top priority for managers faced with intergroup conflict is to identify and root out specific negative linkages between (or among) groups. • Managers are therefore wise to note negative interactions between members and groups and determine if influential third parties are gossiping negatively about another member or group.
Cross-Cultural Conflict • Because of differing assumptions about how to think and act, the potential for cross-cultural conflict is both immediate and huge. • Success or failure when conducting business across cultures often hinges on avoiding and minimizing actual or perceived conflict
Work–Family Conflict • Work–family conflict • occurs when the demands of one’s work role conflicts with those of the family role
Insights about Work–Family Conflict • Work–family balance begins at home • An employer’s family-supportive philosophy is more important than specific programs • Informal flexibility in work hours and in allowing people to work at home is essential to promoting work–family balance • Supportive bosses and colleagues can help • The importance of work–family balance varies across generations
Programming Functional Conflict • Programmed Conflict • encourages different opinions without protecting management’s personal feelings.
Programming Functional Conflict • Devil’s advocacy • assigning someone the role of critic. • Dialectic method • calls for managers to foster a structured debate of opposing viewpoints prior to making a decision
Techniques for Stimulating Functional Conflict: Devil’s Advocacy and the Dialectic Method
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict • Integrating • interested parties confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem, generate and weigh alternative solutions, and select a solution • Appropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstanding
Question? In handling conflict, Jorge believes that interested parties must confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem, generate and weigh alternative solutions, and select a solution. Jorge can be described as advocating which conflict handling style? • Obliging • Integrating • Dominating • Avoiding
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict • Obliging (Smoothing) • tends to minimize differences and highlight similarities to please the other party • Appropriate when it is possible to get something in return
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict • Dominating (Forcing) • relies on formal authority to force compliance • Appropriate when an unpopular solution must be implemented
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict • Avoiding • involves either passive withdrawal from the problem or active suppression of the issue • Appropriate for trivial issues
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict • Compromising • give-and-take approach involves moderate concern for both self and others • Appropriate when parties have opposite goals
Third Party Interventions: Alternative Dispute Resolution • Alternative Dispute Resolution • avoiding costly lawsuits by resolving conflicts informally or through mediation or arbitration
Alternative Dispute Resolution • Facilitation • Conciliation • Peer review • Ombudsman • Mediation • Arbitration
Question? Fredhandbag Photography has created a panel of trustworthy employees to decide on disputes at the company. This is called _________. • Mediation • Facilitation • Conciliation • Peer review
Negotiating • Negotiation • give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences • Two types: • Distributive • Integrative
Added-Value Negotiation • Added-Value Negotiation • cooperatively developing multiple-deal packages while building a productive long-term relationship
Negotiating Your Salary • Know the market rate • Consider the economy • Know your own value • Be honest • Don’t go first • Consider benefits, too • Look at the long term
Video: Toxic Coworkers • Annoying coworkers can be found in every organization. How can you turn these situations around to have good outcomes result? • Is the conflict being described here functional or dysfunctional? Why? • Do you think there are there more annoying people today than in the past, or are we just more sensitive to our working environment? • What different types of conflict did you pick up on being described in the video?