User Interfaces • Interface IS the system • UI an important determinant of success of MSS • Execution time • System versatility • Learning time for users, end users with differing competency • Ease of recall, concentration level required of end users, fatigue, information overload • End-user errors • Subset of Human Computer Interaction • People, computer technology, and the ways they interact
User Interface Design Components • Action Language • Display/presentation language • Knowledge • Dialog Modes of communication • metaphor • mental model • navigation of model • look
Action language • Format of input used by decision makers • way decision makers request info., invoke models, perform sensitivity analysis, request mail, etc. • menu format • question answer format • command language format • input/output structured format • free-form natural language
Menus • Display lists of alternatives for DM to select • inexperienced users, users who use DSS infrequently • not the optimal action language for experienced users - sequence of keystrokes/menu-choices • understandability of menus • naming according to DM language • logical listing of options (alphabetical, numeric, frequency of use, pre-selected most common choice) • grouping commands and objects • menus nested in logical sequence
Independent command and object menus Combined command and object
Command Language format • power users • complete control • (nightmare for inexperienced users)
I/O Structured format • not a primary action language for DSS • repeated, structured, manual process
Display or presentation Language • wide categories of info. • uncluttered desktop • use of icons
Example: Court DSS • To enable judge to see entire perspective of a case • infractions that a defendant may have been involved in • prior criminal history • specific complaint in question • defendant’s socio-economic, health data • drugs used, treatment, with whom the defendant lives, where, how long • court appearance history, non-attendance, why • judge’s comments • etc.
Display/Presentation: representations • Metri-glyphs • smiling face: sales target met • larger smiley: larger sales • smile represents profit level, eyes represent dividend level • closed eye: no dividend, size of eye: size of dividend !!!! • Map with colors depicting different sales levels • graphs, actual numbers • animation, video • simulation of bank with number of clerks, types of services handled by each clerk, number of queues, - impact of factors on queue length
Graphs and bias • 5000 vs 3000 (std. deviation: 2000?) • Scaling of graphs • Sales (0-200), Sales(0-1000)
Mode of communication • Mental models • desktop for organizing office work • operating room tasks? • Understanding how users think about their work • Metaphors • substitution of symbols for information or procedures • should convey intended meaning accurately, intuitively
Mode of communication • Navigation • movement among the data and functions • quick access, easy understanding • Look and feel • corporate culture, individual preferences • cultural factors • significance of colors, size of images in video-conferencing, linear vs. alternate menu formats, etc.
Prototyping • “Low-fidelity” prototyping • designers and users design screens together using paper template items • high fidelity prototyping • User interface tools