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ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-1a MSC: Factual

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-1a MSC: Factual

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ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-1a MSC: Factual

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  1. The word psychology is derived from two Greek words. The first, psyche, means __________ and the second, logos, means ________.a. character, the study of c. mind, bodyb. mind, the study of d. character, body ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-1a MSC: Factual

  2. Which of the following terms best suits the definition of determinism?a. Lawful patterns c. The butterfly effectb. Free will d. Chaos ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-1b MSC: Conceptual

  3. What is the idea that people have the independent liberty to behave in any way that they see fit, without limits called?a. Free will c. Determinismb. Psychiatry d. Structuralism ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-1b MSC: Factual

  4. Although the free will versus determinism debate is still discussed, which of the following terms classifies the view of most of today’s social scientists and psychologists in this area?a. Structuralism c. Behaviorismb. Functionalism d. Probabilistic determinism ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-1b MSC: Conceptual

  5. The year is 1879, and you are on your way to Germany to study at the first institute for research in experimental psychology. With which professor do you hope to study at the University of Leipzig?a. Wilhelm Wundt c. G. Stanley Hallb. Edward Titchener d. Max Wertheimer ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2a MSC: Applied

  6. Through which process did Wundt and the other structuralists believe that consciousness could be best studied?a. Perception c. Introspectionb. Intuition d. Experimentation ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 1-2a MSC: Factual

  7. Edward Titchener renamed Wundt’s model of consciousness using what term?a. Structuralism c. Logical positivismb. Introspection d. Functionalism ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2a MSC: Factual

  8. What is structuralism?a. An approach to psychology that sought to identify the components of the conscious mindb. An approach to psychology that sought to identify the organization and mapping of the brainc. An approach to psychology that sought to identify the structures of the braind. An approach to psychology that sought to identify the factors implicated in the unconscious mind ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2a MSC: Factual

  9. William James, in his development of the school of thought called functionalism, felt that psychology should focus on which goal?a. To understand how the mind affects what people feelb. To understand how the mind organizes stimuli into coherent wholesc. To scientifically study observable behaviord. To understand how the mind affects what people do ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-2b MSC: Conceptual

  10. William James described his philosophy, known as ____, as a “philosophy without humbug.”a. determinism c. humanismb. probabilistic determinism d. pragmatism ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-2b MSC: Factual

  11. Why was Freud’s theory in sharp contrast to the theories of Wundt and James?a. Freud’s theory emphasized observable behaviors.b. Freud’s theory emphasized biological determinants of behavior.c. Freud’s theory emphasized the unconscious mind.d. Freud’s theory emphasized the concepts of pragmatism and introspection. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 1-2c MSC: Conceptual

  12. An emphasis on the manner in which the unconscious mind influences one’s actions would be the core of which approach to psychology?a. Psychoanalysis c. Introspectionb. Pragmatism d. Behaviorism ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2c MSC: Factual

  13. Which of the following was a barrier to the growth of the psychoanalytic school of thought in the science of psychology?a. Freud’s reluctance to submit psychoanalysis to critical examinationb. Freud’s emphasis on the unconscious mind as opposed to observable behaviorc. Freud’s desire to exclude all but psychiatrists to the fieldd. Freud’s belief that psychoanalysis was in the experimental stage ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2c MSC: Conceptual

  14. Which of the following psychologists probably shows the least interest in an individual’s unseen mental processes?a. Gestaltist c. Psychoanalyticb. Behaviorist d. Structuralist ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-2d MSC: Conceptual

  15. According to John Watson, which of the following would be a proper topic for study in the field of psychology?a. Feelings c. Thoughtsb. Playing football d. Motivation ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-2d MSC: Applied

  16. Which of the following goals of psychology would be of the greatest interest to a psychologist who adhered to the tenets of early behaviorism?a. Prediction and control of behaviorb. Identifying the complex components of the conscious mindc. Defining the behavioral differences between man and animal responsesd. Analyzing the structure, content, and function of the mind ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2d MSC: Conceptual

  17. What school of thought criticized structuralism for attempting to understand the conscious mind by identifying and analyzing its components?a. Strategism c. Gestalt psychologyb. Psychodynamic psychology d. Cognitive psychology ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 1-2e MSC: Conceptual

  18. Which name is primarily viewed as the originated of the Gestalt perspective in psychology?a. Kurt Koffka c. Alfred Adlerb. John Watson d. Max Wertheimer ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-2e MSC: Factual

  19. Which cliché is most appropriate to think of when you envision the thinking of a Gestalt psychologist?a. Seeing is believing.b. The whole is different from the sum of its parts.c. Your glass isn’t half empty; it’s half full.d. Laughter is the best medicine. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-2e MSC: Applied

  20. The year is 1895, and you have just defended your doctoral dissertation at Harvard. It was hailed as “the most brilliant examination for the PhD that we have had at Harvard,” by a noted psychologist, but you were not awarded your PhD. Who are you?a. Mary Calkins c. Jean Piagetb. Margaret Washburn d. BarbelInhelder ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-2f MSC: Application

  21. Which of the five early schools of psychology have survived as contemporary perspectives that continue to influence the field today?a. Psychoanalysis and behaviorismb. Behaviorism and functionalismc. Behaviorism and Gestalt psychology d. Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-3 MSC: Factual

  22. Which of the following psychologists refuted the idea, forwarded by Freud, that the personality finishes developing during childhood?a. William James c. Stanley Hallb. Erik Erikson d. James McKeenCattell ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-3a MSC: Factual

  23. Positive psychologyis a(n) ____ to studying optimal human functioning that asserts that the normal functioning of human beings cannot be accounted for within purely negative, or problem-focused, frames of reference.a. traditional approach c. behaviorist approachb. universal approach d. scientific approach ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-3b MSC: Factual

  24. Teaching people to avoid harmful self-deceptions while still maintaining a sense of realistic optimism about life is one of the goals of ____.a. cognitive psychology c. Gestalt psychologyb. positive psychology d. humanistic psychology ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 1-3b MSC: Conceptual

  25. I live in a society that accepts my choice to be my own person. I generally do not need anyone to help me do what I want to do, and I am self-assured, unique, and quite diverse. What philosophy does my society most likely embrace?a. Individualism c. Collectivismb. Self-aggrandization d. Interdependence ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-3f MSC: Applied

  26. Cross-cultural studies indicate that 70 percent of the world’s population lives in cultures with what type of orientation?a. Collectivist c. Industrializationb. Socialization d. Individualism ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 1-3f MSC: Factual

  27. Dynamic ________ theory is the idea that new forms of behavior emerge through the interactions of people’s biology and their culture and physical environmenta. Diathesis c. Contentb. Construct d. Systems ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-3f MSC: Factual

  28. What approach to psychology attempts to understand behavior by examining biological and chemical processes and events, especially those occurring in the brain?a. Experimental perspective c. Psychoanalytic perspectiveb. Cognitive perspective d. Neuroscience perspective ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 1-3g MSC: Conceptual

  29. The best example of the primacy effect is which of the following examples?A. You are surprised when you read that, based on research, 1 out of every 20 people in the United States will suffer from depression at some point in their life.B. After finding out that Mary is suffering from major depression, you claim that you’ve known it all along.C. The first time you meet Mary she seems depressed. Even though she is quite cheerful the next few times you see her, you continue to think of her as a depressed person.D. You are not surprised to find out that Mary is suffering from major depression because so many other things in her life have gone badly. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 2-1a MSC: Applied

  30. One’s opinion that they always knew what was going to happen, even after the event took place, is known as which of the following?a. The primacy effect c. The hindsight biasb. Critical thinking d. The implicit personality theory ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 2-1a MSC: Factual

  31. ____ consist(s) of a set of procedures used to gather, analyze, and interpret information in a way that reduces error and leads to dependable generalizations.a. Hindsight methods c. Evaluative consistencyb. Scientific methods d. Naive psychology ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-1b MSC: Factual

  32. ____ consist(s) of a set of procedures used to gather, In research, a group of subjects drawn from a population to participate in a study is referred to as a(n) ____.a. co-varying group c. cultureb. sample d. extraneous group ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-1b MSC: Factual

  33. Deciding what to believe and how to act based on a careful evaluation of the evidence is an example of what process? a. Critical thinking c. Hindsight biasb. The implicit personality theory d. The primacy effect ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 2-1b MSC: Factual

  34. Which of the following represents the proper order of the four stages of the research process?a. Selecting a topic, collecting and analyzing data, developing a theory based on data collection and analysis, and reporting resultsb. Selecting a topic, breaking the topic down into its components, researching the most current literature on the topic, and reporting resultsc. Selecting a topic, collecting data, analyzing data, and reporting resultsd. Selecting a topic, formulating hypotheses, selecting a scientific method, and collecting and analyzing data ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 2-2a; Figure 2-1 MSC: Factual

  35. An organized system of ideas that seeks to explain why two or more events are related is referred to as a(n) ____.a. semantic network c. Hypothesisb. theory d. Analogue ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-2b MSC: Factual

  36. What are hypotheses? a. Mathematical analyses that summarize and describe the behavior or characteristics of a particular sample of participantsb. Educated guesses or predictions about the nature of things derived from a theoryc. Organized systems of ideas that seek to explain why two or more events are relatedd. Mathematical analyses that move beyond mere description of research data to make inferences about a population ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-2b MSC: Factual

  37. What are factors in research studies that can be measured and are capable of changing known as?a. Dependents c. Operationalsb. Independents d. Variables ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 2-2c MSC: Factual

  38. Operational definitions are used to do which of the following in scientific methods?a. Describe how variables have been quantified so that they can be measuredb. Provide several alternatives as to how to collect data for research in the futurec. Give very specific instructions how to properly conduct the research studyd. Provide alternate explanations for research findings ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 2-2c MSC: Conceptual

  39. Repeating a previous study’s scientific procedures using different participants in an attempt to duplicate the findings is known as ____.a. imitation c. duplicationb. replication d. repetition ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-2c MSC: Factual

  40. To ensure the health and safety of participants in psychological studies, all research-oriented institutions have ____ to monitor and evaluate research proposals involving both human and animal subjects.a. institutional review boards b. organizational monitoring committeesc. governmental review boardsd. institutional control panels ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 2-2c MSC: Factual

  41. In evaluating research that is to be conducted using human beings as participants, to what is the highest priority given?a. Having all participants finish the task to the best of their abilitiesb. The welfare of the participantsc. The potential benefits of the researchd. The potential loss of trust caused by any type of deception ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-2c MSC: Factual

  42. Which of the following statements about correlation is most accurate?a. Correlation does not imply causation.b. Case studies are the most widely used method of correlational research.c. Two variables cannot have a zero correlation.d. A change in one variable cannot be predicted by knowing the value of the other variable. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 2-3b MSC: Factual

  43. In experimental research, which variable is under the direct control of the researcher?a. Extraneous variable c. Dependent variableb. Independent variable d. Third variable ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 2-3c MSC: Factual

  44. In an experiment, the dependent variable is that which is____.a. manipulatedb. randomly assignedc. administered to the experimental groupd. measured ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 2-3c MSC: Factual

  45. What are the specialized cells in the nervous system that send and receive information called?a. Synapses c. Nervesb. End bulbs d. Neurons ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 3-1 MSC: Factual

  46. Which type of neuron sends commands from the brain to glands, muscles, and organs to commence, cease, or inhibit something?a. Motor c. Sensoryb. Afferent d. Propagated ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3-1a MSC: Factual

  47. ____ connect(s) the sensory neurons' input signals with the motor neurons' output signals.a. Interneurons c. Neurotransmittersb. Synapse d. Myelin sheath ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3-1a MSC: Factual

  48. Which of the following best describes how messages are transmitted within a neuron?a. Dendrite, soma, axon c. Axon, dendrite, somab. Axon, soma, dendrite d. Soma, axon, dendrite ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3-1b MSC: Factual

  49. What is the central part of the neuron known as?a. Cell body c. Synaptic vesicleb. Terminal button d. Schwann cell ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3-1b MSC: Conceptual

  50. What do dendrites do?a. Insulate the neuron b. Send information to other neurons c. Receive information from other neuronsd. Absorb the shock of trauma to the neuron ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 3-1b MSC: Factual