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How to Use Theory

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How to Use Theory

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  1. How to Use Theory TO SUPPORT IDEAS TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING COMPLICATED TO UNDERSTAND SOMETHING CONFUSING TO CLARIFY SOMETHING UNCLEAR

  2. NEXT The meaning of THEORY

  3. What is theory? A theory is a set of ideas that helps to explain why something happens or happened in a particular way, and to predict likely outcomes in the future. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR‎

  4. What is theory? Theories are based on evidence and reasoning, but have not yet been conclusively proved. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR‎

  5. What is theory? An attempt to explain… a framework for understanding… a set of ideas linked together to help us make sense of a particular issue. Thompson, N. via www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/openup/chapters/0335204252.pdf‎

  6. NEXT SOME TYPES OF THEORY

  7. Explanatory Theory Provable explanations why something happens

  8. Model A description of activity in a structured form

  9. Perspective Ways of conceptualizing, visualizing, understanding, or seeing something

  10. Principle A proven explanation why something happens. A principle is applicable in any situation, with some exceptions. (Ethical principle)

  11. Law A proven explanation why something happens. A law is applicable in any situation, with no exceptions. (Law of gravity)

  12. NEXT IMPORTANCE OF THEORY

  13. Theory is important because Theory provides a way of understanding something complicated or difficult

  14. Theory is important because Theory provides a way of understanding something unexpected or unsure

  15. Theory is important because Theory can ensure accountability

  16. Theory is important because Theory can help avoid discrimination

  17. Theory is important because Theory is the mark of a professional

  18. ONE MORE TIME Theory is important because Theory is the mark of a professional Theory can ensure accountability Theory can help avoid discrimination Theory provides a way of understanding something complicated or difficult Theory provides a way of understanding something unexpected or unsure

  19. NEXT WHY STUDY THEORY?

  20. To Help in Careful Observation Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for

  21. To Help in Careful Description Theory can provide students a conceptual vocabulary to arrange and organize their observations

  22. To Help in Careful Description Theory can provide students a framework to arrange and organize their observations

  23. To Help in Careful Explanation (1) Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected

  24. To Help in Careful Explanation (2) Theory can offer possible causal relationships between one event and another

  25. To Help in Careful Prediction Theory can indicate what might happen next

  26. To Help in Careful Intervention Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change

  27. ONE MORE TIME Why should we study theory? • Observation: Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for • Description: Theory can provide a conceptual vocabulary and framework to arrange and organize their observations • Explanation: Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected; theory can offer possible causal relationships between one event and another • Prediction: Theory can indicate what might happen next • Intervention: Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change

  28. NEXT How to use THEORY in a research paper

  29. First Mention A theory can be used several times in a piece of writing. The first time it is used, mention the theory name, theorist, and year published. Vary the signal phrases you use to integrate quotations.

  30. Examples The following signal phrases use quotations. Your task is to replace the quotations with theories.

  31. IN THE WORDS OF In the words of author and essayist Samuel Johnson, “The true measure of a man is how he treats someone who can do him absolutely no good."

  32. NOTE As Divakarunihas noted, “Looking down from the heights of Maslow's pyramid, it seems inconceivable to us that someone could actually prefer bread to freedom.”

  33. POINT OUT Arthur Hardy, a renowned expert on New Orleans Carnival traditions, points out that “Mardi Gras came to North America from Paris, where it had been celebrated since the Middle Ages.”

  34. CLAIM Racial profiling “makes a mockery of the rights to which people in this country are entitled,” claimscolumnist Colbert I. King.

  35. OFFER Sir Winston Churchill offers this wise advice: "If you are going through hell, keep going."

  36. CONCEDE Sheffield answers her critics by conceding, “The proposal did not account sufficiently for the economic downturn.”

  37. HOW TO USE WHERE IN THE SENTENCE?

  38. At the Start Sir Winston Churchill offers this wise advice: "If you are going through hell, keep going."

  39. In The Middle “We have a crime problem in this country,” writes Barry Goldwater, “not a gun problem.”

  40. At the End “We have a crime problem in this country, not a gun problem,” asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater.

  41. At the End “We have a crime problem in this country, not a gun problem,” asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater.

  42. Signal Phrases Signal phrases can be used to introduce a theory • Signal Phrases.pdf www.plattsburgh.edu/files/2/files/Signal%20Phrases.pdf‎ • Signal Phrases department.monm.edu/english/mew/signal_phrases.htm‎ • Signal Phrases www.apsu.edu/sites/apsu.edu/files/academic.../Signal_Phrases.pdf‎

  43. NEXT Signal verbs

  44. Use the Simple Present Tense • acknowledges • comments • describes • maintains • reports • adds • compares

  45. Use the Simple Present Tense • disputes • notes • responds • admits • concedes • emphasizes • observes

  46. Use the Simple Present Tense • shows • agrees • confirms • endorses • points out • states • argues • contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts declares implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes

  47. Use the Correct Word • contends • illustrates • reasons • suggests • asserts • declares

  48. Use the Correct Word • implies • refutes • summarizes • claims • denies • insists • rejects • writes

  49. ONE MORE TIME Simple Present TenseCorrect Word • acknowledges • comments • describes • maintains • reports • adds • compares • disputes • notes • responds • admits • concedes • emphasizes • observes • shows • agrees • confirms • endorses • points out • states • argues • contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts declares implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes

  50. A reminder about grammar