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STONE PowerPoint Presentation

STONE

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STONE

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  1. STONE CITY IN THE

  2. Dr Tim Yates BRE Ltd

  3. There’s no such thing as bad stone – only badly used stone Tim Yates, BRE 12th March 2008, Stone in the City, The Natural Stone Show 2008

  4. Where do we begin ? • Choosing by appearance – colour, texture, etc • Meeting a required performance – strength, durability • Performance or prescription? • Trial and error? • Past performance • Testing and assessment

  5. How many types of stone are available? • Locally – for example Bath Stone • About 6 • Nationally – for example UK • Around 250 • World Wide – • Over 8000

  6. Where do we begin ? Variable Variable Fixed Stone properties Project needs Failure! At the limit! Success! Fixed Project needs Stone properties Stone properties Project needs

  7. How do we match a stone to a project? • Failure mode effect analysis • What can go wrong? • What can we test for this? • How can we manage the risk? • Is it safe? • Will it last? • Is it strong enough?

  8. Specifying by experience Local Stone Trial and error Observation Experience Measurement Traditional Use Testing Classification Portland Stone in London - observation of balusters on buildings in Whitehall - failure of stone at the Palace of Westminster

  9. Performance versus Product specification Example 1: • Resistant to 10 m/s wind loading • 70mm thick cladding • London limestone

  10. Performance versus Product specification Example 2: • “Durable” for 50 years • Weathering rate 2mm per 100 years • Class B • London limestone (based on tradition)

  11. Product specification • BS 8298: 1994 Design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining • Use stone like this and it will be alright • BS 680: 1971 Specification for roofing slates • Use slates that pass (Now replaced by BS EN123630 • BS5385 Part 5 :1994 Wall and Floor Tiling: Design and installation of terrazzo tile and slab, natural stone and composition block flooring • Doesn’t matter what you use as long as you do it right

  12. Different types of test (1) • Index tests • Petrographic description • Porosity, Density and Water Absorption • Saturation Co-efficient • Strength tests • Compressive • Flexural • Modulus of Rupture • Strength around a fixing • Point load

  13. Different types of test (2) • Durability tests • Freeze-thaw resistance • Salt resistance • Thermal Shock • Safety • Slip and skid resistance • Component tests • Wind loading • Fire • Impact

  14. Deterioration of natural stone • Erosion and spalling • Large, solid stones • Loss of strength • Thermal and moisture cycles • Biological growths • Westminster Abbey, London

  15. Deterioration of cladding • Bowing and distortion of marble cladding • Large, thin panels • Loss of strength • Thermal and moisture cycles • University Library, Göttingen, Germany

  16. Deterioration of cladding • Bowing and distortion of marble cladding • Large, thin panels • Loss of strength • Thermal and moisture cycles • Finlandia Hall Helsinki • Amoco Tower Chicago

  17. Different uses of stone in construction External Cladding

  18. External Cladding

  19. External Cladding

  20. Different uses of stone in construction - Flooring and Paving

  21. Different uses of stone in construction - Roofing

  22. Roofing

  23. Roofing

  24. Roofing

  25. Roofing

  26. Roofing - does something always go wrong?

  27. Vimy Ridge

  28. Vimy Ridge

  29. Will the stone do what I want it to do?

  30. Stone in different environments

  31. Is the stone what I wanted?

  32. A few pointers • Select the stone with care • Establish what performance requirements of the project • Recent test results • Assurance that the material is consistent • Extra tests if needed • Workmanship • A good contractor • Sorting • Laying • Any questions?

  33. Some conclusions Performance Life time Realism

  34. Thank you for your attention