Essential Understandings • Every teachers is a literacy teacher. • Focused and strategic vocabulary development is essential for all students. • Vocabulary is about more than just words.
Goals for Today • 1. Gain knowledge and understanding of the importance of specific vocabulary development for all students. • 2. Engage with colleagues in the construction of knowledge and skills in this area. • 3. Be exposed to strategies that will help all students improve their vocabulary. Goals for Today Goals for Today Goals for Today Goals for Today Goals for Today Goals for Today Goals for Today
Introduction Theory of Language Learning Knowing a WordWhat Does the Research Say?Types of Vocabulary Vocabulary StrategiesLinks to Alberta EducationApps (Google and Other)
Levels of EL Proficiency • LEVEL ONE --Silent period & Beginning • relies on first language • communicates with non-verbal gestures, one word answers, drawings • extremely limited vocabulary
Levels of EL Proficiency • LEVEL TWO--Developing • increased confidence in routine classroom situations • uses survival vocabulary and fragmented speech • sight vocabulary of functional words • writes using pattern or familiar sentence structures
Levels of EL Proficiency • LEVEL THREE--Expanding • communicates competently in classroom situations • will initiate conversations with English peers • has a good vocabulary for daily living (BICS) • is acquiring academic vocabulary (CALP) • begins to write for academic purposes using simple sentence structures
Levels of EL Proficiency • LEVEL FOUR--Bridging • can adjust language to situation • uses academic vocabulary in context • writing approaches grade level expectations • begins to develop personal style and voice in writing
Levels of EL Proficiency • LEVEL FIVE--Competent • is a competent speaker of English • speech is fluent, but may be influenced by first language • uses academic vocabulary • understands humour and figurate language • writes effectively to communicate ideas
How do these words relateto oneanother? • vocabulary • gap • instruction • intervention • context • conspicuous • semantic map • strategic integration • mediated scaffolding • lexicon
What does this word mean? • psittacosis
Learning New Words: Understanding word analysis contextual guessing ask someone visuals translate glossary, thesaurus, dictionary
Remembering New Words: Making them part of your lexicon making charts, labels, posters, etc. picture association using it intentionally repetition in context word association mnemonic devices
What does it mean to know a word? • In what ways do you know it?
Ways we know words • recognize when heard • recognize when seen • say it • spell it • write it • can define it • know a range of meanings • know prefixes and suffixes • know the word forms • know grammatical forms • know synonyms and antonyms
know the cognates • know typical related words, associations, acronyms, etc. • know the derivatives • know the limits of the word • know when to use it • can understand in different contexts • can use in many contexts • know collocations Adapted from Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman: Word Knowledge: A Vocabulary Teacher’s Handbook
basic word understanding 3. recognition 2. Gimme 5! 4. partial concept knowledge unknown 1. 5. full concept knowledge • 1. I have never heard this word. • 2. I have heard this word, but do not know what it means. • 3. I know this word when it appears in context. • 4. I know this word and can use it when talking or writing. • 5. I can play with this word. I understand it in multiple contexts.
Explicit Vocabulary Development: A More Level Playing Field 1. Read the article. 2. Discuss the article using the 4-A Strategy: What was AFFIRMED for you? What had you ASKING questions? What ASSUMPTIONS were made? What ACTIONS might you take?
ELLs have the dual task of learning a foreign language and content simultaneously. For this reason it is “critical to set both content and language objectives for ELLs. Just as language growth cannot occur if we only focus on subject matter, content knowledge cannot grow if we only focus on learning the English language” (Hill & Flynn, 2006). (Bresser, Melanese & Sphar, 2009, p. 5)
Linguistic Demands • What are the linguistic demands of your lesson?
Five Types of Vocabulary 1. Subject Specific--words related to the curriculum topic 2. Context Defined--words with multiple meanings 3. Academic Words--language of the thinking processes required to do academic tasks (compare, contrast, discuss, defend, justify,...) 4. Connectors--used to show relationships between ideas (whereas, the most important, therefore,...) 5. Figurative Language--go beyond literal meaning and require contextual, social and/or cultural references (fork in the road)
Consider this... He has been married for 27 year and he still loves his wife. He has been married for 27 years but he still loves his wife. Do these 2 sentences mean the same thing?
Consider this... What subject specific language will be needed to discuss 2D shapes and 3D objects in math? What other types of vocabulary in this unit might be problematic for students ?
How would you define these words for a level 3 ELL? • polygon • vertices • corner • open • closed • straight • curved • line • face • point • tri-, quatra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta, oxta, ... • surface • compare • list • similar • different
polygon (subject) • vertices (subject) • corner (context) • open (context) • closed (context) • straight (context) • curved (context) • line (context) • face (context) • point (context) • tri-, quatra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta, oxta, (subject) • surface (context) • compare (academic) • list (academic) • similar (connector) • different (connector)
A Social Studies example In a democracy, citizens take a responsible role to speak up about government, however, some citizens will put their foot down and clearly explain why they think their opinion is best for the country.
In a democracy, citizens take a responsible role to speak up about government, however, some citizens will put their foot down and clearly explain why they think their opinion is best for the country. Colour coding with highlighters is a useful strategy for students to help them differentiate between the types of vocabulary.
Consider the following: Samuel bought three bags of oranges with seven oranges in each bag. How many oranges did he buy?
Samuel bought three bags of oranges with seven oranges in each bag. How many oranges did he buy?
Think of an upcoming, or current, unit of study.What key vocabulary is required of students? Subject Specific, Context Specific, Academic Words, Connectors, Figurative Language
It is important to remember that all students are expected to access the content, skills and attitudes found in the programs of study. However, not all students will be able to access the same vocabulary. It is, therefore, important to differentiate the word choices for differing levels of language proficiency.
Thinking Strategy: RipplingOut myself with a partner with the whole class
Thinking Strategy: RipplingOut myself with a partner with a small group with the whole class
Base Strategy: ActivatePrior Knowledge • KWL • Brainstorm • Word Splash (semantic mapping) • Interpretation of pictures • others?
Base Strategy: Build Background Knowledge • Provide interactive learning experience, such as: • demonstration • exploration • video • field trip (virtual or other) • opportunities for reflection • others?
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction • Word analysis clouds • labeled pictures, diagrams, graphs,... • anchor charts • categorization • clines • word walls • fixed & portable
Retelling Strategy: Anchor Chart Related Vocabulary Key ideas or concepts
Anchor Chart: Three Bears Mama, Papa, Baby porridge, pot, bowls, kitchen a walk, golden hair, girl forest, knocked big, medium, small, bowl, too hot, too cold just right, tasted, spoonful, Bears leave the house and Goldilocks arrives 2. Bowls 4. Beds 3. Chairs bed, too hard too soft, just right, fell asleep,screamed, big, medium, small, ran away chair, too hard too soft, just right, broke, sat down, big, medium, small,
Definition Strategy: Frayer Model Model definition: facts about Composite Numbers examples non-examples
Definition Strategy: Frayer Model Model facts about: *4 is the lowest *2 is the only one that is not a composite number *square numbers have an odd number of factors definition: a whole number with 2 or more factors Composite Numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, ... 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, ... examples non-examples
Deepening Strategy: Categorizing Sorting words into categories allows students to develop flexibility and deepens their understanding of words and concepts.