Outline • Conflict • Competition and Conflict • Class Activity • Mixed Motive Situations • Social Dilemmas • Class Activity • Threats and competition
Conflict • What is it? • Disagreement, discord and friction that occurs when the actions or beliefs of one or more members of the group are unacceptable to and resisted by one or more other group members. • Conflict is unavoidable in groups • Interdependence increases chances of clashing • likes and dislikes • opinions and perspectives • motives and goals
Types of Conflict • Personal conflict • Interpersonal discord when group members dislike each other • Substantive conflict • Disagreements over issues that are relevant to the group’s real goals and outcomes • Procedural conflicts • Disagreements over the methods the group should use to complete its basic tasks • Disagreeing on how to disagree!
Class Activity • General Instructions • The aim of this activity is to investigate behavior in small groups. Participants will be divided into groups of two, with one experimenter. Each group of two people will work on a task at which they will attempt to accumulate points. After completing the task, participants will be asked to perform another similar task.
Competition and Conflict • Competition • Situation in which any one member of the group will succeed only if another member of the group fails • Cooperation • Situation in which the success of any one member improves the chance of other members succeeding
Competition and Conflict • Competition promotes conflict • Sabotage other, criticize them, withhold info. • Effects of competition (Deutsch, 1949) • Two types of grading systems • Competitive • Cooperative • Results: • Conflicts more pronounced in competitive groups • Cooperative ppl were friendlier, more supportive
Mixed-Motive Situations • Most situations: • Motive to compete and the motive to cooperate • Laboratory technique: • Prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) • Analogous to 2 criminals whose fates depend on their trust • Must choose to cooperate or to compete
John Doesn’t confess Confesses Jane Confesses Doesn’t confess
Prisoner’s Dilemma Online • Interactive prisoner's dilemma • Interactive prisoner's dilemma
GAME RULES • Rule #1: • The number of objects left in the bowl at the end of every 10 seconds will double. (max: 14) • Rule #2: • The object of the game is for the players to acquire as many objects as possible. • Rule #3: • Players cannot communicate with each other
Social Dilemmas • Social dilemmas • Individuals must choose between maximizing their personal outcomes and maximizing their group’s outcomes • Dividing resources • Equity norm • Distributing resources in proportion to inputs • Equality norm • Distributing resources equally among all members
Resource Dilemma • Tragedy of the commons • Resource dilemma (social trap) • A situation that tempts ppl to act in ways that will benefit them but will prove detrimental in the long run to them and the group
Threats and Competition • The capacity to threaten others sets up conflict situation • Actual use of threat serves to intensify conflict • If one party threatens the other, the threatened party will fare best if it cannot respond • Open communication not always good!
Threats and Competition • Trucking game simulation (Deutsch & Krauss, 1960) • SS role play owners of trucking companies • ACME and BOLT carried merchandise over roads • Earned $.60 each trip minus $.01 per second • Conditions: • Unilateral threat condition • Bilateral threat condition • Control
Alternative Route ACME start ACME destination Acme’s Gate Bolt’s Gate Direct Route BOLT start BOLT destination Alternative Route Trucking Game Simulation
Trucking Game Simulation • http://www.worthpublishers.com/exploring/content/psychsim/index.htm • Found under social decision making