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STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy PowerPoint Presentation
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STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy

STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy

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STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy

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  1. STAAR Reporting Category 2Force, Motion, & Energy Middle School Science Science STAAR Need to Know Science STAAR Need to Know

  2. Energy The ability to do work or to cause change Science STAAR Need to Know

  3. Chemical Energy – Energy transformations Chemical energy – when light energy from the sun is converted to the energy in the bonds of the sugar molecules formed in photosynthesis. Science STAAR Need to Know

  4. Chemical Energy Examples of chemical energy changing into heat energy: Lighting a match Burning a wood fire Science STAAR Need to Know

  5. Science STAAR Need to Know

  6. Electrical energy- Energy transformations Electrical energy- flow of electrons (a current) • Other ways of generating electricity: • Water flowing through a dam in a river to move turbines • Wind generators that use the energy of moving wind & operate a generator • Nuclear power plants convert atomic energy into heat. Heat boils water to form steam & then follows the same energy transformations as coal power plants666 Science STAAR Need to Know

  7. Many energy transformations… Electrical to mechanical: Electricity used to spin the CD (Spinning CD has mechanical energy due to its position or motion) Electrical to sound: A laser converts the digital information on the CD into electrical energy and this energy goes to the headphones as a vibration- this transmits Sound! Chemical to electrical: Batteries store chemical compounds that react when they are used to power something. This produces a flow of electrons which is electricity!! Science STAAR Need to Know

  8. Sound energy- Energy transformations Sound – consists of mechanicalenergy waves created by vibrations. Sound must travel through something (called “medium” or “media”) such as air, water, or a solid. The medium carries the energy of the wave from one place to another. Example: Air transmits the energy of the vibrating material in the headphones to your eardrums. A vacuum is a space that contains little or no matter. Sound can’t travel through a vacuum since there are no particles to squeeze together (compression) or spread apart (rarefaction) Science STAAR Need to Know

  9. Light waves do not need a medium to transmit energy! They can even travel through empty space. Light Waves Science STAAR Need to Know

  10. Water waves are a form of a wave that transmits mechanical energy across the surface of water. Water waves A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another. Science STAAR Need to Know

  11. Seismic waves Seismic waves are caused by earthquakes that transmit mechanical energy through the Earth’s layers. San Andreas Fault Science STAAR Need to Know

  12. Potential (PE) Potential Energy Stored energy Science STAAR Need to Know

  13. Kinetic Energy (KE) Energy due to motion of an object Did you know that the gas burned in a car engine is chemical energy being turned into Kinetic Energy? Kinetic energy Rubber band flying through the air has kinetic energy Speed & mass affect kinetic energy– Faster/heavier…more Kinetic Energy Science STAAR Need to Know

  14. Before the yo-yo begins its fall it has stored energy due to its position. At the top it has its maximum potential energy. As it starts to fall the potential energy begins to be changed into kinetic energy. At the bottom its potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy so that it now has its maximum kinetic energy A waterfall has both potential and kinetic energy. The water at the top of Bridal Veil Falls has stored potential energy. When the water begins to fall, its potential energy is changed into kinetic energy. This change in energy also happens at Niagara Falls where it is used to provide electricity from the transformation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy. Science STAAR Need to Know

  15. Science STAAR Need to Know

  16. Potential energy A rock sitting at the top of a cliff Roller coaster car at the top peak of a hill A swimmer posed to dive off the end of a diving board NO MOTION !! Kinetic energy A bouncing ball A moving roller coaster A track star running A girl skiing MOTION is the key!!!! Energy Transformations Science STAAR Need to Know

  17. Force pushing or pulling action that may change motion Forces may transfer energy between objects Forces may MOVE objects Science STAAR Need to Know

  18. A book resting on a desk illustrates balanced forces. However, a book dropped from a desk illustrates unbalanced forces. In this case, gravity has overcome the balance of forces. Science STAAR Need to Know

  19. GRAVITY Science STAAR Need to Know

  20. You use force to move your body When you bend your arm, your muscles contract, which applies force to your arm bones. Your arm responds to this force by moving. During breathing, muscles contract (use force) to move air in and out of the lungs. The heart contracts (uses force) to pump blood through the blood vessels, carrying oxygen to the muscles. Science STAAR Need to Know

  21. All living things use force to move Plants exert force to open flower petals, curl & uncurl leaves & push roots through the soil. Emerging seedlings exert force on the surrounding soil. This force pushes the stem of the plant out of the ground. Force is used to move materials in & out of cells. Fish exert force to swim by pushing against the water. Science STAAR Need to Know

  22. Balanced force Unbalanced force In order for a force to move something, it must be an unbalanced force. This means that a force is stronger in one direction than the forces in the opposite direction. Science STAAR Need to Know

  23. Let's look at some motion data Acceleration of an object moving in one direction is the speed (m/s) per unit of time (s), or change in speed divided by time. The unit for acceleration is m/s2. Science STAAR Need to Know

  24. Science STAAR Need to Know

  25. Data can be displayed & interpreted in many ways Science STAAR Need to Know

  26. ACCELERATION Science STAAR Need to Know

  27. Force- measured in newtons ( N ) Force & motion are related Science STAAR Need to Know

  28. NEWTON’S 1ST LAW OF MOTION Science STAAR Need to Know

  29. NEWTON’S 2ND LAW OF MOTION Science STAAR Need to Know

  30. NEWTON’S 3RD LAW OF MOTION Science STAAR Need to Know

  31. Science STAAR Need to Know

  32. A lever is a bar that rests on a support called a fulcrum which lifts or moves loads.  Science STAAR Need to Know

  33. Types of levers Science STAAR Need to Know

  34. This pulley has 1 wheel, so it changes the direction of pull 1 time. The input force is the same as the weight using the pulley. A pulley is a simple machine that uses grooved wheels and a rope to raise, lower or move a load. When a rope passes over a wheel, it changes the direction of effort (pull) needed to move the load. Science STAAR Need to Know

  35. Wedge A wedge is an object with at least one slanting side ending in a sharp edge, which cuts material apart. Science STAAR Need to Know

  36. An inclined plane is a ramp used to reduce the effort needed to raise or lower an object over a vertical height. It is easier to climb stairs to get to a second floor than to climb straight up a rope. It is easier to walk up a long, gentle hill than to climb up a short, steep hill. Examples of inclined planes: Loading ramp; Stairs or wheelchair ramp Mountain road; Threaded screw. The ancient Egyptians used inclined planes, or ramps, to move huge blocks of stone to build the pyramids. Science STAAR Need to Know

  37. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a pole Science STAAR Need to Know

  38. A wheel with a rod, called an axle, through its center lifts or moves loads. Wheel & axle Science STAAR Need to Know