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Tibet

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Tibet

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  1. Tibet

  2. Tibet

  3. Ancient Tibet • Pastoral Nomadism main economic activity on Tibetan Plateau. • Feudalism • China and Tibet were always intertwined through military raids, etc until the 1750’s.

  4. Problems with China • Language not translatable to Chinese. Can’t be written in Chinese characters. • Nomadic Herding Vs Intensive Agriculture • Feudal Theocracy Vs Communism

  5. Takeovers • Up to the 1750’s – back and forth • 1750’s Ching Dynasty considers Tibet to be part of China, but allows it to rule itself. (Autonomous) • 1912 13th Dalai Lama declares independence from China. • 1914 13th Dalai Lama signs treaty giving China direct control (suzenerity) over Inner Tibet and sets up Outer Tibet as autonomous.

  6. Map of Tibet

  7. Mid-Century Policy • 1949 – CCP invokes new treaty to reassert control over Tibet, but does not attempt reform of feudal theocracy. • Chairman Mao promises DL that Outer Tibet (TAR) would be autonomous. • Amdo and Kham assimilated into existing Chinese provinces with reforms. • Mid-1950’s – Tibetans in Amdo and Kham rebel and protest the treaty. • Part of the Cold War Expansion (Vietnam, Korea, Taiwan, Tibet) • All resisted by the US.

  8. Cold War Expansion

  9. Revolution • Open revolt in 1956 (helped by CIA) • 1959 – Chinese suppresses the revolt and the DL and 50 – 60,000 Tibetans flee to India. • Cultural Destruction • Temples destroyed • Monks arrested or killed • Patriotic education • Dalai Lama outlawed

  10. Tingri Monastery Monastery during the Cultural Revolution

  11. After the Exile • Dalai Lama sets up a government in exile in Dharmsala, India. • US CIA aids the DL and revolutionaries in Tibet until 1971 when the US formally reopens diplomatic relations with China. • 1.8 million per year. • Official US policy does not recognize Tibet as an independent country.

  12. Present Day • 1978 Panchen Lama released from prison and returns to Tibet. • Preservation of Culture & Language • 1980’s China allowed rebuilding of monastaries and use of the language. Some cultural practices allowed. • 200,000 plus Chinese immigrants live in Tibet. • 1990’s China pulled back and reinstated patriotic training of monks and obstructed religious practice. • Dalai Lama is still outlawed.

  13. What Now? • Moderates want the Dalai Lama back, the culture preserved or protected, and to be an autonomous part of China. • Hardliners want no Dalai Lama, integrated culture or Chinese culture and to be part of China. • Tibetans like their new wealth, but want the choice to keep their old ways.

  14. Roads, schools, hospitals, telecommunications, infrastructure, etc…. Waves of immigrants Ended feudalism New prosperity Life of Brian What has China done for us?