Merekayasa Masa Depan Pengenalan pada Rekayasa (Enjinyiring): Pendekatan Komprihensif
Bab 1 Sejarah Rekayasa (Enjinyiring)
1.1 Pendahuluan • Definisi Enjinyiring • The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
1.2 Getting Started • Kebudayaan Prasejarah • Zaman Komputer • Kecepatan Perubahan Sejarah • Quick Overview
1.3 Awal Mula Rekayasa • Masa prasejarah • Mesir dan Mesopotamia
1.4 The Overview Approach • Perekayasaan Kuil Yunani • Jalan Roma dan Aqueducts • Tembok Besar Cina
1.5 Bergerak Melalui Zaman • 1200 SM – 1M • Quality of wrought iron is improved • Swords are mass produced • Siege towers are perfected • Greeks develop manufacturing • Archimedes memperkenalkan matematika di Yunani • Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads and aqueducts in Rome.
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: A.D. 1-1000 • Chinese further develop the study of mathematics • Gunpowder is perfected • Cotton and silk manufactured
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1000-1400 • Silk and glass industries continue to grow • Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval mathematician, writes the first Western text on algebra
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1400-1700 • First toilet is invented in England • Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with which he observes the rotation about the sun • Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence of a vacuum • Issac Newton constructs first reflecting telescopes • Boyle’s Gas Law, stating pressure varies inversely with volume, is first introduced.
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1700-1800 • Industrial Revolution begins in Europe • James Watt patents his first steam engine • Society of Engineers, a professional engineering society, is formed in London • First building made completely of cast iron built in England
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1800-1825 • Machine automation is first introduced in France • First railroad locomotive is designed and manufactured • Chemical symbols are developed, the same symbols used today (Au, He) • Single wire telegraph line is developed
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1825-1875 • Reinforced concrete is first used • First synthetic plastic material is created • Bessemer develops his process to create stronger steel in mass quantities • First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania • Typewriter is perfected
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1875-1900 • Telephone is patented in the US by Alexander Graham Bell • Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the phonograph • Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler • Automobile introduced by Karl Benz
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1900-1925 • Wright brothers complete first sustained flight • Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors • First commercial flight between Paris and London begins • Detroit becomes center of auto production industry
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1925-1950 • John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of television • The VW Beetle goes into production • First atomic bomb is used • The transistor is invented
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1950-1975 • Computers first introduced into the market, and are common by 1960 • Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put into space by USSR • First communication satellite—Telstar—is put into space • The U.S. completes the first ever moon landing
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1975-1990 • The Concord is first used for supersonic flight between Europe and the U.S. • Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel • First artificial heart is successfully implanted
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages: 1990-Present • Robots travel on Mars • The “Chunnel” between England and France is finished • GPS is used to predict and report weather conditions, as well as many other consumer applications
1.6 Case Study of Two HistoricEngineers • Leonardo Da Vinci • Gutenberg and His Printing Press
Aerospace Eng. Agricultural Eng. Chemical Eng. Civil Eng. Computer Eng. Electrical Eng. Industrial Eng. Mechanical Eng. 1.7 The History of the Disciplines
1.7 History: Aerospace Engineering • “Aerospace engineering is concerned with engineering applications in the areas of aeronautics (the science of air flight) and astronautics (the science of space flight).
1.7 History: Agricultural Engineering • Agricultural engineering focuses on: • Soil and water • Structures and environment • Electrical power and processing • Food engineering • Power and machinery
1.7 History: Chemical Engineering • Chemical engineering applies chemistry to industrial processes, such as the manufacture of drugs, cements, paints, lubricants, and the like.
1.7 History: Civil Engineering • Civil engineering focuses on structural issues, such as: • Bridges and Highways • Skyscrapers • Industrial Plants and Power Plants • Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines • Pipelines, Gas Facilities, Canals
1.7 History: Computer and Electrical Engineering • The world’s business is centered around computers, and their uses are only increasing • Electrical is the largest branch of engineering • Involved in: • Communication Systems • Computers and Automatic Controls • Power Generation and Transmission • Industrial Applications
1.7 History: Industrial Engineering • Industrial engineers design, install, and improve systems that integrate people, materials, and machines to improve efficiency.
1.7 History: Mechanical Engineering • Deals with power, the generation of power, and the application of power to a variety of machines, ranging from HVAC to space vehicles.
Bab 2 Engineering Majors
2.1 Introduction • Several characteristics of students that might have an interest in engineering are: • Proficient skills in math and physical science • An urging from a high school counselor • Knows someone who is an engineer • Knows that engineering offers literally dozens, if not hundreds of job opportunities • Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite lucrative
2.1 Engineers and Scientists • Scientists seek technical answers to understand natural phenomenon • Engineers study technical problems with a practical application always in mind • For example • “Scientists study atomic structure to understand the nature of matter; engineers study atomic structure to make smaller and faster microchips”
2.1 The Engineer and the Engineering Technologist • Main difference between the two is: • Engineers design and manufacture machines and systems, while engineering technologists have the technical know-how to use and install the machines properly • An example: • “The technologist identifies the equipment necessary to assemble a new CD player; the engineer designs said CD player”
2.1 What Do Engineers Do? • Ways to get information about careers: • Visit job fairs • Attend seminars on campus by various employers • Contact faculty with knowledge of engineering fields • Get an intern or co-op position • Enroll in an engineering elective course
2.2 Engineering Functions: Research • Research engineers are knowledgeable in principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and mathematics • Computer know-how is also recommended • A Masters Degree is almost always required, and a Ph. D is often strongly recommended
2.2 Engineering Functions:Development • Development engineers bridge the gap between the laboratory and the production facility • They also identify problems in a potential product • An example is the development of concept cars for companies like Ford and GM
2.2 Engineering Functions:Testing • Testing engineers are responsible for testing the durability and reliability of a product, making sure that it performs how it is supposed to, every time. T.E.s simulate instances and environments in which a product would be used • Crash testing of a vehicle to observe effects of an air bag and crumple zone are examples of a testing engineer’s duties
2.2 Engineering Functions:Design • Design aspect is where largest number of engineers are employed • Design engineers often work on components of a product, providing all the necessary specifics needed to successfully manufacture the product • Design engineers regularly use computer design software as well as computer aided drafting software in their jobs
2.2 Engineering Functions:Design • Design engineers must also verify that the part meets reliability and safety standards required for the product • A concern always on the mind of design engineers is how to keep the development of a part cost effective, which is taken into account during a design process
2.2 Engineering Functions:Analysis • Analysis engineers use computational tools and mathematic models to enrich the work of design and research engineers • Analysis engineers typically have a mastery of: heat transfer, fluid flow, vibrations, dynamics, acoustics, and many other system characteristics
2.2 Engineering Functions:Systems • Responsible on a larger scale for bringing together components of parts from design engineers to make a complete product • Responsible for making sure all components of a product work together as was intended by design engineers
2.2 Engineering Functions:Manufacturing & Construction • Work individually or in teams • Responsible for “molding” raw materials into finished product • Maintain and keep records on equipment in plant • Help with design process to keep costs low
2.2 Engineering Functions:Operations & Maintenance • Responsible for maintaining production line • Must have technical know-how to deal w/ problems • Responsible for inspecting facility and equipment, must be certified in various inspection methods
2.2 Engineering Functions:Technical Support • Works between consumers and producers • Not necessarily have in depth knowledge of technical aspects of product • Must have good interpersonal skills
2.2 Engineering Functions:Customer Support • Often have more of a technical knowledge than Tech. Support, because they must be able to work with basic customers • Evaluate whether or not a current practice is cost effective via feedback from customers
2.2 Engineering Functions:Sales • Sales engineers have technical background, but are also able to communicate effectively w/ customers • Job market for sales engineers is growing, due to the fact that products are becoming more and more technically complex
2.2 Engineering Functions:Consulting • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that does not directly manufacture products • Consulting engineers might be involved in design, installation, and upkeep of a product • Sometimes required to be a registered professional engineer in the state where he/she works
2.3 Engineering Majors:Aerospace Engineering • Previously known as aeronautical and astronautical engineering • First space flight Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik I) • KEY WORDS: • Aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air over a streamlined surface or body. • Propulsion engineers: develop quieter, more efficient, and cleaner burning engines.
2.3 Engineering Majors:Aerospace Engineering • KEY WORDS: • Structural engineers: use of new alloys, composites, and other new materials to meet design requirements of new spacecraft • Control systems: systems used to operate crafts • Orbital mechanics: calculation of where to place satellites using GPS