What is the kidney? • The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located in the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, on either side of the spine.
What do the kidneys do? • The kidneys are vital organs that regulate composition of the blood: • Keep the blood clean and chemically balanced • Keep the volume of water in the body constant • Remove wastes from the body
What do the kidneys do? • They help regulate blood pressure • Stimulate the making of red blood cells • Maintain the body’s calcium level
Urine • When kidneys are healthy, the artery (AR-ter-ee) brings blood and waste from the bloodstream into the kidney. • Kidneys clean the blood. Then waste and extra fluid go out into the urine through the ureter. • Clean blood leaves the kidney and goes back into the bloodstream through the vein.
What are the signs of kidney disease? During early stages of kidney disease, the patient may not feel sick or feel anything at all
If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience: What are the signs of kidney disease? • Blood in urine • Cloudy or foamy urine
If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience: What are the signs of kidney disease? • Puffiness of eyelids • Swelling of hands or feet Itching
If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience: What are the signs of kidney disease? • Feeling tired Drowsiness or have trouble concentrating Loss of appetite • vomiting
Am I at risk for kidney diseases • Do I have diabetes? • Have I been told to have protein in the urine • Do I have a family history of kidney diseases? • Do I have high blood pressure?
What medical tests will my doctor use to detect kidney disease? • Since you can have kidney disease without any symptoms, your doctor may first detect the condition through routine blood and urine tests.
The National Kidney Foundation recommends three simple tests to screen for kidney disease: • a blood pressure measurement • a spot check for protein or albumin in the urine (proteinuria) • a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a serum creatinine measurement.
What can I do about kidney disease? • Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease often cannot be cured. But if you are in the early stages of a kidney disease, you may be able to make your kidneys last longer by taking certain steps. • You will also want to be sure that risks for heart attack and stroke are minimized, since patients with kidney disease are susceptible to these problems.
Steps to make your kidneys last longer • If you have diabetes, watch your blood glucose closely to keep it under control. Consult your doctor for the latest in treatment. • Avoid pain pills that may make your kidney disease worse. Check with your doctor before taking any medicine.
Steps to make your kidneys last longer • Keeping blood pressure under control helps to keep your kidneys healthy.
What happens if my kidneys fail? • One way to treat kidney failure is with dialysis. • Dialysis is a treatment that does the work your kidneys used to do. • Dialysis is a treatment that takes waste products and extra fluid out of your body. • There are two types of dialysis.
Hemodialysis • In hemodialysis, your blood flows through a tube from your arm to a machine that filters out the waste products and extra fluid. The clean blood flows back to your arm.
Peritoneal dialysis • In peritoneal dialysis, your belly is filled with a special fluid. The fluid collects waste products and extra water from your blood. Then the fluid is drained from your belly and thrown away.
Another way to treat kidney failure is to do kidney transplantation. • A donated kidney may come from an anonymous donor who has recently died or from a living person, usually a relative. • The kidney that you receive must be a good match for your body.
What should I do to stay healthy? • Follow the healthy eating plan that you and your doctor or dietitian have worked out. • Limit intake of salt
What should I do to stay healthy? • Be active a total of 30 minutes most days. Ask your doctor what activities are best for you.
What should I do to stay healthy? • Take your prescribed medicines as directed. • Avoid taking pain pills regularly and other unprescribed medicines. • Check with your doctor before taking any medicines
What should I do to stay healthy? • Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
What should I do to stay healthy? • Don't smoke.
What should I do to stay healthy? • See a doctor for bladder or kidney infections right away. You may have an infection if you have these symptoms: • pain or burning when you urinate • frequent urge to go to the bathroom • urine that looks cloudy or reddish • fever or a shaky feeling • pain in your back or on your side below your ribs
The following should raise suspicion of kidney disease • Swelling of legs and puffy eyelids • High blood pressure (esp. in young) • Waking up at night to urinate • Painful urination • Painless blood in the urine • Sandy material in the urine • Colicky pain in the flank area - foamy urine
Ways of preventing kidney disease 1. Keep your blood pressure normal < 120/80 2. Know your family history - anyone in family on dialysis - Diabetes - Hypertension - Gout - Passage of stone 3. Maintain a healthy diet 4. Control your weight
The Philippine College of Physicians wishes to acknowledge the following for her invaluable efforts in the preparation of this module Ruth Lampa, MD