MARTHA ROGERS The Science of Unitary Human Beings Presented by AudreyChouri & Claressa Walker
Brief History • Martha Elizabeth Rogers was born in Dallas, Texas May 12, 1914; sharing her birthday with Florence Nightingale. • She grew up in a family, where learning was fostered and reading was a favorite pastime. • Received Nursing diploma from Knoxville General Hospital in 1936. • She completed her BSN in Public Health Nursing in 1937 from George Peabody College Nashville in 1937 and worked as a public health nurse. • Earned her master's degree in public health nursing from Teacher's College Columbia University.
Original Source • Immediately after receiving her doctoral degree, Dr. Rogers got the position of a professor and head of Division of Nursing. It was there that her career as an educator and a leader in theory development came to realization. • Rogers early grounding in the liberal arts and sciences is apparent in the origin of her theory. • Her original work are the basic assumptions about human beings. Using these assumptions, she identified concepts on which, she based her Principles of Homeodynamics • Her major work entitled "An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing" was published in 1970. • Rogers model was known throughout the world as the Science of Unitary Human Beings focuses on the human being as a whole in constant interaction with the environment.
Roger's theory on the Science of Unitary Human Beings Roger's Assumptions and Concepts Assumptions Five basic assumptions that helped describe man and the life process were • First “The Human being is unified whole possessing an individual integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different from the sum of their parts”. (In other words, the characteristics of an individual is what gives him his identity as a human being. Human beings are just not characterized by body parts, but by mass, structure, function and feelings.) • “The individual and the environment are constantly exchanging energy with each other and the human being is visible only when particulars disappear from view”. (In other words, everyday life experiences illustrate how an individual affects or is being affected by the world around him/her. People are connected to the natural world.) • “The life process of human beings evolves irreversibly and unidirectionally along a space time continuum”. (In other words, conception, ,birth, infancy ,childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age and death follow one another through sequential stages of development.) • “Identifying individuals and reflecting their wholeness is life's patterns”. (In other words, man’s ability to self-regulate himself in spite of the continuous change or new patterns in his life and the environment.) • Finally “The human being is characterized by the capacity for abstraction and imagery, language, thought, sensation and emotion”. (In other words, man is different and unique from other living form because he has the power to think himself.)
Roger's theory on the Science of Unitary Human Beings….cont. Concepts Energy Field is the fundamental unit of both living and non living, they have no boundaries, extend to infinity, and are dynamic. Universe of Open Systems The energy fields are open and are allowing continuous exchange with other fields. Pattern identifies energy fields. It is perceived as a single wave; these patterns are not fixed but change as situations require. Pandimensionality a nonlinear domain that is not bounded by space or time. it is a infinite domain without limit. Unitary humans (human field) “Human being is a unified being integral with the environment the human field is in continuous mutual process with the environmental field.” Environment (environment field) "An irreducible, pan-dimensional energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics different from, yet integral with the human field".
Principle of Homeodynamics Principle of Homeodynamics Due to the inseparability of human beings and their environment, sequential life process are continuous revisions, occurring from the interactions between human beings and their environment. Rogers chose Homeodynamics, instead of homoeostasis which means maintaining balance or equilibrium to convey the dynamic ever-changing nature of life and the world. The Principle of Homeodynamics are composed of three separate principles • Principle of Integrality. It is the continuous, mutual, simultaneous interaction process between humans and environmental fields. • Principle of Resonancy The change in the pattern of human beings and environments is propagated by waves that move from longer waves of lower frequency to shorter waves of higher frequency. • Principle of Helicy Deals with the nature and the direction of change in the human -environment field. The human -environmental field is dynamic, open system in which change is continuous due to constant interchange between the human and environment. The direction of change is toward ever increasing diversity and complexity.
Research with this theory 1986: Ference’s Field Motion Test Barrett’s Human Field Power Test Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness 1992: Roger’s principles change to: Integrality, Helicy, and Resonancy 1997: Carboni’s Rogerian Process of Inquiry Bultemeier’s Photo Disclosure Method 1998: Parse’s Human Becoming Theory Barrett’s Health Patterning 2005: Butcher’s Unitary Field Pattern Portrait Cowling’s Unitary Appreciation Inquiry
Theory Applied to Nursing Practice Nursing practice should be noninvasive modalities, such as therapeutic touch, humor, guided imagery, use of color, light music, meditation focusing on health potential of the person. Emphasis should be on pain management, supportive psychotherapy motivation for rehabilitation. Nursing practice is knowing rather than doing and as human service based on knowing rather than isolated functional activities. Nursing practice challenged to understand and care for human beings in the wholeness and mutuality of the person-environment process rather than as isolated actions and responses in a limited cause and effect manner. Patterning- the active dynamic or active process of the life of the human being. People are helped to become aware of feelings, thoughts and attitudes within a gentle life-affirming environmental context that involves meaningful use of theory and associated health patterning modalities.
Theory Applied to Our Practice School Health Pattern: Involve the student in their knowing participation in change; focusing sometimes on lifestyle change, through sharing knowledge so as to empower the adolescent. Engage in meaningful dialogue; encourage self reflection. Appraisal of multiple lifestyle rhythm such as nutrition, exercise, sleep/wake cycles, relationships and work/leisure activities. Use of therapeutic imagery, music, art or humor in developing self confidence.
Theory Applied to Our Practice Long term and Rehabilitation Environment: Create a restful and relaxing environment for patients Energy fields: Use therapeutic touch to ease pain and promote relaxation. Open systems: Use non pharmacological methods like turning on the radio to the patients favorite music channel, the sound of the tunes may allow memories of happy events to replace the anxiety and pain. Pattern: Identify changes in vital signs, or pain. For example; Is the patient's blood pressure elevated in the morning, or in the evenings, what alleviates or aggravates patient's pain. Unitary Human being: If a patient has come in with a neurological problem, there could be no understanding of him if only his neurological system is viewed, therefore, assess the patient as a unified whole.