HAAMAHA and Ergon-Axia 2007, Posen Effectiveness in Health and Safety: Summary report on the SIFA Long-Term Study longitudinal online-survey with OH&S professionals Schmauder, M; Höhn, K. (Technische Universität Dresden)
Safety System in Germany § Labour Inspectors + Occupational safety and health (OHS) professionals (Safety engineers)in german: Sicherheitsfachkraft = SIFA Accident Insurance
Background • Legal framework • Occupational Safety Act (ASiG, 1974) • European Framework Directive on occupational health and safety 89/391/EEC • Occupational Health and Safety Act (ArbSchG, 1996) • Operational Area • Generally, each company (> 10 employees) has to be supervised by an OHS-professional • Task • In compliance with regulatory requirements the OHS-professional has to counsel and support the employer in all questions belonging to safety and health • Qualification • OHS-professionals receive their training through the statutory accident insurance organisation. • Change processes in the economy • Broader qualifications required by OHS-professionals • New qualification concept for OHS-professionals launched in 2001 • Alteration between attendance courses (5 weeks) and computer-based self-learning • 4 Central examinations
Research Questions (Summary) • What are the fields of activity where newly trained OHS professionals work? • In which activities do OHS professionals have high or low effectiveness? • How do personal characteristics and competence of the OHS professionals interact with their fields of activity and the effectiveness within their work? • What is the relation between the general corporate framework (management systems, the care for safety and health, the size of the company, sector) with the fields of activity and the assessment of the work of the OHS professionals? • What is the relation between social and economic changes, such as demographic change, globalization, deregulation, and the conditions in which an OHS professional works and with the kind of work and their effectiveness within those working tasks? • What type of support do OHS professionals need to work more effectively in their fields of activity?
Timeline of the study analysis/ documentation preparation/ test first surveybasic study 1st follow-up surveybasic study 2nd follow-up surveybasic study in-depth & validation study 3rd follow-up survey Short versions of the basic study & the in-depth & validation study in-depth & validation study May 2007, N=2003
Structure of the study External Factors • online study • Questionnairewith 268 questions • 1/3 of the population take part (N=2003) • representativesample General Corporate Conditions Person Activity Effectiveness
Fields of acitivity Influencing the behaviour of employees is supposed to avoid or terminate existing risks. The work comprises motivation of employees to wear protective clothing and use protectice equipment, and also instructions and emergency management analysis of risks, employment of analytical methods and work-flow-oriented risk analyses integration into corporate actions; for example, integration of industrial safety into management activities or development of risk assessment concepts integration into corporate actions; for example, integration of industrial safety into management activities or development of risk assessment concepts promotion of health, improving the design of work forms and working hours N = 2003 Exploratory Factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation. Explained variance: 48%
Fields of effectiveness hierarchical structure, strategic industrial safety management, safety and health culture, reduction of interruptions of the work flow and downtimes caused by injuries or illnesses reduction of hazards and risks economic benefit for the company as a result of improved products and image and also higher industrial safety and safer transportation processes physical (reduction of physical risks), mental (better reconciliation of job and family), and social (improving the conditions for elderly employees) design of working conditions N = 2003 Exploratory Factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation. Explained variance: 48%
Internal full-time or part-time experts who work for their own company but also for at least one other company: safety professionals of this type report an average intensity in all fields of activity and an average effectiveness. OHSP Typ - Portfolio acitivity The internal full-time safety professionals: safety professionals of this type show an above-average intensity in all fields B 24% 4 External safety professionals who externally work for one or more companies: the work intensity of the safety professionals of this type is higher than average in all five fields E 16% C 17% D 10% A Internal parttime OHSP with low intensity B Internal parttime OHSP with low intensity C Internal fulltime OHSP D Company-external OHSP E Internal part- or fulltime OHSP, which supervises as well the own company as at least one other company The internal part-time safety professionals, who works in all five fields of activity with a higher intensity when compared with the average of the general population 3 A 33% The internal part-time safety professionals, who works in all five fields of activity with a low intensity when compared with the average of the general population N = 2003 effectiveness 2 3 4
Effectiveness and goal orientation or identification clearly identifiable clearly identifiable 5,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 effectiveness effectiveness lowly lowly effective industrial safety experts effective industrial safety experts 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 niedrig wirksame niedrig wirksame Sifas Sifas highly effective industrial safety experts highly effective industrial safety experts 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 hoch wirksame hoch wirksame Sifas Sifas 4,2 4,2 4,2 4,2 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 partly identifiable partly identifiable 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 effectiveness effectiveness identification identification co co - - operative operative goal orientation goal orientation
Further Results • The more intensively OHS-professionals are concernd with an overall risk assessment concept of a company, the higher is the effectiveness they perceive in all fields! • Goal-oriented cooperation defines the quality of the effectiveness of the OHS-professionals. Very successful OHS-professionals use methods that can be circumscribed as methods of cooperative goal orientation (socially competent and cooperatively performed goal attainment). They also identify themselves very much with their role and work • Small enterprises. The effectiveness of the OHS-professionals depends not on the size of the supervised enterprise. In small enterprises, highly committed and motivated OHS-professionals may – given a favourable safety and health culture – produce a very high effectiveness which can compared with the work of OHS-professionals in large enterprises. • Cooperation with the management. The effectiveness is significantly higher in companies where cooperation with the management is realized directly and on a regular basis.
Thank you for your attention! These presentation, further information of the project and an english summary report of the Sifa Long-Term Study:www.sifa-langzeitstudie.de/download.html