Leadership Skills Prepared by A. Muller Department of Biokinetics and Sport Science
Leadership defined • Knowing to give others direction, by having a vision of what can be. • It is developing the team culture, by selecting motivating ,rewarding ,retaining and unifying members. • Giving vision and translating it into reality. • It is the action of an individual to influence others towards set goals.
Leaders determine the direction for the future and use resources in the organisation to pursue the vision. • It emphasises personal relationship. >paying attention to people >believing them >caring about them >involving them
Transformation Leadership • A leader commits people to action • Converts follower to leaders • Involves a dynamic relationship where the leader influences the followers and they influence him/her. • Demand of the coach may be reciprocated by their demands on him/her. • Leadership from this perspective is not unilateral.
Transformation Leadership • It is a collective process • Coach & players work together to meet each other’s individual needs and common goals • It make athletes responsible and in control of their lives
Power • The basic energy to initiate and sustain action. • Thus permitting you to translate intentions into reality. • It is essential for you to achieve the objectives of the team. • Leadership is the wise use of power • Power is gained through effective leadership • Power becomes usable when those being led acknowledge the leader’s authority • You must earn the respect of the team to have the to achieve excellence. • This respect is earned by demonstrating knowledge, skills and commitment to the team.
Power • In transformative leadership you empower the staff and team to help achieve team goals. • When you empower members they ; 1. feel they are making a difference contributing to team gaols 2.learn new skills that enhance their physical and psychological performance –increasing their motivation. 3.Experience more enjoyment from their participation.
Four components of effective leadership • The leader's qualities • The style of leadership • The nature of the situation • The follower’s characteristics
Qualities of effective leaders • Integrity • A leader must have a solid leader’s philosophy • Flexibility • Use every opportunity to improve and better traditions • Loyalty • Promote and enforce collective loyalty also known as teamwork • Confidence • Build confidence by giving players and staff responsibility and support their attempts
Qualities of effective leaders • Accountability • Take full responsibility, lead by example • Preparedness • Plan ahead for any situation even unlikely events • Resourcefulness • A refusal to quit or give in • Self-discipline • Strict adherence to a calculated plan is required • Patience • Most important! Know what changes to make and when to make them
Leadership styles • Autocratic style – The coach solves all the problems using the information available at the time. • Autocratic- consultative style – The coach obtains information from players and comes to a decision. • Consultative-individual style – The coach consults the players individually and then makes a decision. • Consultative-group style – The coach consults the players as a group and then makes a decision. • Group style – The coach shares the problem with the players and jointly make the decision without influence from the coach.
Approaches to studying leadership • Trait approach • Behavioral approach • Situational approach • Interactional approach
Trait Approach • Proposes that leaders have certain personality characteristics - intelligence, assertiveness, independence and self confidence. • These type of leaders will be successful in any situation. • New research says these may not be essential nor do they guarantee successful leadership.
Behavioral Approach • Behaviorists argue any one can be taught to become a leader, by learning the behaviours of other effective leaders. • They say leaders are made not born.
Situational Approach • Effective leadership more dependent on characteristics of the situation than traits and behaviors of leaders. • Situational features have major influences on leader’s success.
Interactional Approach • The leaders trait and behavior is just as important as the situation. • Leaders can alter their styles & behaviour to match a situation’s demands • Effective leadership styles or behaviors fit the specific situation. • Leadership styles can change. • Relationship-orientated leaders – develop interpersonal relationships • Task orientated leaders – Work to get a task done and meet objectives
Multidimensional Model of Leadership for Sports Multidimensional model of sport leadership • The situation demands that a leader behaves in certain ways Situational characteristics Required Behavior Performance and satisfaction Leader characteristics Actual behavior Member characteristics Preferred behavior
Questions • 1. Explain what team culture is . • 2.What is vision, explain giving examples from sport. • What are goals? Give examples of; (i) individual goals (ii) team goals. • 3.Briefly explain three styles of leadership, for each give examples related to sport. • 4.Explain what is involved in each of the following approaches to leadership: trait, behavioral and interactional approach.