Medical Informatics Basics Lection 1
Basic Questions • Medical Informatics Definition • Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area • Medical Informatics Areas • Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields • Clinical informatics • Biomedical informatics • Bioinformatics • Public health informatics • Nursing informatics • Dental informatics • Medical Cybernetics • Information Systems examples
1. Medical Informatics (A) Medical information science is the science of using system-analytic tools . . . to develop procedures (algorithms) for management, process control, decision making and scientific analysis of medical knowledge. (E.H. Shortliffe, The science of biomedical computing. Medical Informatics 1984;9:185-93.)
1. Medical Informatics (B) Medical Informatics comprises the theoretical and practical aspects of information processing and communication, based on knowledge and experience derived from processes in medicine and health care. (J.H. van Bemmel, The structure of medical informatics. Medical Informatics 1984;9:175-80.)
1. Medical Informatics (C) In medical informatics we develop and assess methods and systems for the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of patient data with the help of knowledge that is obtained in scientific research. (J.H. van Bemmel and M.A. Musen, Handbook of Medical Informatics, Springer Verlag, 1997.)
1. Medical Informatics (D) It is the intersection of information science, computer science and health care. It deals with the resources, devices and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information in health and biomedicine. (Wikipedia, 2008.)
1. The Informatics • Informatics (academic field), a broad academic field encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information technology, algorithms, and social science • Computer science, the study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques. • Information science, the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information • Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems
1. Medical Informatics is Multidisciplinary • It is applies methodologies developed in multiple areas of scientific endeavor to many different tasks • In turn, it often gives rise to new, more general methodologies that enrich these scientific disciplines
2. Example of Scientific Areas Relevant to Medical Informatics • Medicine/ Biology • Mathematics • Information Systems • Computer Science • Statistics • Decision Analysis • Economics/Health Care Policy • Psychology
2. Example of Scientific Areas Relevant to Medical Informatics
1.Data collection: -History -Physical examinations -Laboratory and other tests Information Data 2.Decision making Patient Therapy plan 3.Planning Diagnosis/assessment 2. The Diagnostic-Therapeutic Cycle, Simplified View
3. Examples of Medical Informatics Areas • Hospital information systems • Electronic medical records & medical vocabularies • Laboratory information systems • Pharmaceutical information systems • Radiological (imaging) information systems • Patient monitoring systems • Clinical decision-support systems • Diagnosis/interpretation • Therapy/management • Bioinformatics: Closely related tasks/methods
4. Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields • Architectures for electronic medical records and other health information systems • Decision support systems in healthcare, including clinical decision support systems • Standards (e.g. DICOM, HL7) and integration profiles to facilitate the exchange of information between healthcare information systems • Controlled medical vocabularies (CMVs) such as the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT),used to allow a standard, accurate exchange of data content between systems
5. Clinical informatics • It is a sub-field of medical informatics. • It is a combination of information science, computer science, and clinical science designed to assist in the management and processing of data, information and knowledge to support the practice and delivery of clinical care. (Shortliffe and Perreault, Medical Informatics: Computing applications in health care and biomedicine)
6. Biomedical informatics It is concerned with the study and application of information technology and computer science as well as decision making, human problem solving, cognitive science, standards, policies, and human factors in the practice of biomedical science, medicine and healthcare and is most commonly used in this way in the USA.
7. Bioinformatics Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques including applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry, and biochemistry to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level.
8. Public Health Informatics Public Health Informatics has beendefined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. Major tasks: • Collection of public health data. • Storage of public health data. • Analysis of public health data.
9. Nursing informatics (A) It is a specialty of Health care informatics which deals with the support of nursing by information systems in delivery, documentation, administration and evaluation of patient care and prevention of diseases. (Wikipedia, 2008)
9. Nursing informatics (B) It is a specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, and knowledge in nursing practice. (American Nurses Association's Scope and Standards for Nursing Informatics Practice, 2006)
10. Dental informatics Dental informatics is the application of computer and information science to improve dental practice, research, education and management. It can be considered a subset of medical informatics and biomedical informatics. It improves patient care by improving efficiency and effectiveness in different areas of a common dental practice: • administration; • clinical care; • charting records; • patient education.
11. Medical Cybernetics Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of complex systems, especially communication processes, control mechanisms and feedback principles. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device.
11. Medical Cybernetics Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as: • Artificial intelligence • Robotics • Computer Vision • Control systems • Emergence • Learning organization Computer sciencedirectly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information. • Decision support system • Cellular automaton • Simulation
11. Medical Cybernetics Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation: • Bioengineering • Biocybernetics • Bionics • Homeostasis • Medical cybernetics • Synthetic Biology
11. Medical Cybernetics Medical Cyberneticsis a field of applied cybernetics which utilizes the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice. It covers an emerging working program for the application of systems- and communications-theory, connectionism and decision theory on biomedical research and health related questions.Topics: • Systems Theoryin medical sciences(searching for and modelling of physiological dynamics). • Medical information and Communication Theory (mathematically describe signalling processes and information storage in different physiological layers) • Connectionism(describe information processing in neural networks) • Medical Decision Theory (gather evidence based foundations for decision making in the clinical setting)
12. Information systems – example Electronic health record (EHR) with image and document links.
12. Information systems – example Sample patient record view from an image-based electronic health record (VistA).
12. Information systems – example A PACS allows to store volumic exams and to reconstruct 3D images
Conclusion • Medical Informatics Definition • Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area • Medical Informatics Areas • Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields • Clinical informatics • Biomedical informatics • Bioinformatics • Public health informatics • Nursing informatics • Dental informatics • Medical Cybernetics • Information Systems examples