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Objectives Overview

Objectives Overview

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Objectives Overview

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  1. Objectives Overview See Page 417 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  2. Objectives Overview See Page 417 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  3. System Development Page 418 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  4. System Development Page 418 Figure 11-1 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  5. System Development • System development should follow three general guidelines: Page 419 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  6. System Development • System development should involve representatives from each department in which the proposed system will be used Page 419 Figure 11-2 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  7. System Development • Project managementis the process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development • To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project leader identifies: Page 420 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  8. System Development A popular tool used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activities is a Gantt chart Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Gantt Charts below Chapter 11 Pages 420 - 421 Figure 11-3a Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  9. System Development A PERT chart also can be used for planning and scheduling time Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click PERT Charts below Chapter 11 Pages 420 - 421 Figure 11-3b Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  10. System Development • Feasibilityis a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization Page 421 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  11. System Development • Documentation is the collection and summarization of data and information and includes: • Reports • Diagrams • Programs • Other information generated during system development Page 422 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  12. System Development • During system development, members of the project team gather data and information using several techniques Pages 422 - 423 Figure 11-4 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  13. System Development Page 423 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  14. System Development Page 424 Figure 11-5 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  15. System Development • The planning phasefor a project begins when the steering committee receives a project request • Four major activities are performed: Page 425 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  16. System Development • The analysis phaseconsists of two major activities: Pages 425 - 427 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  17. System Development Page 426 Figure 11-6 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  18. System Development • The system proposal assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution • The steering committee discusses the system proposal and decides which alternative to pursue Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Vertical Market Software below Chapter 11 Pages 427 - 428 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  19. System Development • The design phaseconsists of two major activities Page 428 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  20. System Development • To acquire the necessary hardware and software: Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click E-Zines below Chapter 11 Pages 428 - 430 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  21. System Development • The next step is to develop detailed design specifications • Sometimes called a physical design Page 430 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  22. System Development • Systems analysts typically develop two types of designs for each input and output Mockup Layout chart Pages 430 - 431 Figures 11-8 – 11-9 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  23. System Development • A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model of the proposed system • Prototypes have inadequate or missing documentation • Users tend to embrace the prototype as a final system • Should not eliminate or replace activities Page 431 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  24. System Development • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are designed to support one or more activities of system development Page 432 Figure 11-10 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  25. System Development • The purpose of the implementation phaseis to construct the new or modified system and then deliver it Page 432 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  26. System Development • Various tests should be performed on the new system Page 433 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  27. System Development • Training involves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and software in the system • One-on-one sessions • Classroom-style lectures • Web-based training Page 433 Figure 11-11 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  28. System Development • One or more of four conversion strategies can be used to change from the old system to the new system • Direct conversion • Parallel conversion • Phased conversion • Pilot conversion Pages 433 - 434 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  29. System Development • The purpose of the operation, support, and security phase is to provide ongoing assistance for an information system and its users after the system is implemented Page 434 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  30. System Development • A computer security planshould do the following: Page 434 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  31. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • A computer programis a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks • Created by a programmerusing a programming language Pages 435 - 436 Figure 11-12 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  32. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • Machine language is the first generation of programming languages • Only language the computer directly recognizes Page 436 Figure 11-13 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  33. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • Assembly languageis the second generation of programming languages • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes • A source programcontains the code to be converted to machine language Page 437 Figure 11-14 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  34. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it • Third-generation language(3GL) Page 438 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  35. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Pages 438 – 439 Figures 11-15 – 11-16 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  36. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • The C programming language is used to write many of today’s programs Page 439 Figure 11-17 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  37. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English-like statements Page 440 Figure 11-18 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  38. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • An object-oriented programming (OOP) languageallows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects • Other advantages include: Page 440 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  39. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • Javais an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems • The Just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecode into machine-dependent code Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Java Platforms below Chapter 11 Pages 440 - 441 Figure 11-19 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  40. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • The Microsoft .NETFramework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices Page 441 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  41. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • C++is an extension of the C programming language • Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object-oriented concepts • C#is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft Page 441 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  42. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Pages 441 - 443 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  43. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Page 442 Figure 11-20 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  44. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Page 443 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  45. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • PowerBuilder is a powerful program development RAD tool • Best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications Page 443 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  46. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural languagethat enables users and programmers to access data in a database • One popular 4GL is SQL Page 443 Figure 11-21 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  47. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • Classic programming languages include: Page 444 Figure 11-22 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  48. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • An application generatoris a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality • Often bundled as part of a DBMS Pages 444 - 445 Figure 11-23 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11

  49. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools • A macro is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task • You usually create the macro in one of two ways: • Record the macro with a macro recorder • Write the macro Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Macros below Chapter 11 Page 445 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11