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Objectives Overview

Objectives Overview

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Objectives Overview

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  1. Objectives Overview See Page 464 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  2. Objectives Overview See Page 464 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  3. Databases, Data, and Information Page 464 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  4. Databases, Data, and Information Page 465 Figure 11-1 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  5. Databases, Data, and Information • Database software,often called a database management system(DBMS), allows users to: Page 464 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  6. Databases, Data, and Information • Data integrity reflects the quality of the data • The more errors the data contains, the lower its integrity • Data integrity is important because computers and people use information to make decisions and take actions Page 466 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  7. Databases, Data, and Information • Valuable information should have the following characteristics: Pages 466 - 467 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  8. Databases, Data, and Information • Data is organized in layers • Files, records, fields, characters Pages 467 - 468 Figure 11-2 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  9. Databases, Data, and Information • A characteris one byte • Numbers, letters, space, punctuation marks, or other symbols • A fieldis a combination of one or more related characters • Field name • Field size • Data type Page 468 Figure 11-3 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  10. Databases, Data, and Information • Common data types include: Page 469 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  11. Databases, Data, and Information • A recordis a group of related fields • A primary keyis a field that uniquely identifies each record • A data fileis a collection of related records Page 469 Figure 11-4 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  12. Databases, Data, and Information • File maintenancerefers to the procedures that keep data current Page 470 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  13. Databases, Data, and Information • Users add new records to a file when they obtain new data Pages 470 - 471 Figure 11-5 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  14. Databases, Data, and Information • Users generally modify a record to correct inaccurate data or update old data Pages 471 - 472 Figure 11-6 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  15. Databases, Data, and Information • When a record no longer is needed, a user deletes it from a file Page 472 Figure 11-7 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  16. Databases, Data, and Information • Validationcompares data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct Pages 473 - 474 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  17. File Processing Versus Databases Pages 476 - 477 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  18. File Processing Versus Databases Page 476 Figure 11-9 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  19. Database Management Systems • A data dictionarycontains data about each file in the database and each field in those files Page 478 Figure 10-10 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  20. Database Management Systems • A DBMS provides several tools that allow users and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the database Page 479 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  21. Database Management Systems • A query languageconsists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, store, update, or delete • Structured Query Language (SQL) is a popular query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data • Many DBMSs provide tools to guide nontechnical users through the steps of creating a query Page 480 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  22. Database Management Systems Page 480 Figure 11-12 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  23. Database Management Systems • Most DBMSs include query by example (QBE), a feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data Page 481 Figure 11-13 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  24. Database Management Systems • A formis a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database • A report writer allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report Page 481 Figure 11-14 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  25. Database Management Systems Page 482 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  26. Database Management Systems • A DMBS provides a variety of techniques to restore the database to a usable form in case it is damaged or destroyed Page 482 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  27. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • A data modeldefines how users view the organization of the data Page 483 Table 11-2 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  28. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • A relational databasestores data in tablesthat consist of rows and columns • Each rowhas a primary key • Each columnhas a unique name • A relationshipis a link within the data Pages 483 - 484 Figure 11-15 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  29. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • An object-oriented database (OODB) stores data in objects • Examples of applications appropriate for an object-oriented database include: Pages 484 - 485 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  30. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • A multidimensional databasecan store data in more than two dimensions of data • Sometimes known as a hypercube • Can consolidate data much faster than a relational database • A data warehouse is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions Pages 485 – 486 Figure 11-17 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  31. Web Databases • The web offers information about: Page 486 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  32. Database Administration Page 489 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  33. Information Systems in the Enterprise • An information systemis a set of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce information Page 491 Table 11-3 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  34. Information Systems in the Enterprise • Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP) integrates MRP II with the information flow across an organization to manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise, including product planning, manufacturing and distribution, accounting and finance, sales, human resources, and customer support Page 491 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  35. Information Systems in the Enterprise Page 492 Figure 11-18 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  36. Information Systems in the Enterprise • A document management system (DMS) allows for storage and management of a company’s documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets • A content management system (CMS) enables and manages the publishing, modification, organization, and access of various forms of documents and other files, including media and webpages, on a network or the web Pages 492 - 493 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  37. Information Systems in the Enterprise • A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities Pages 493 – 494 Figure 11-19 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  38. Information Systems in the Enterprise • A management information system (MIS) is an informationsystem that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress Pages 494 – 495 Figure 11-20 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  39. Information Systems in the Enterprise • A decision support system (DSS) helps users analyze information and make decisions Page 495 Figure 11-21 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  40. Information Systems in the Enterprise • An expert system is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making Page 496 Figure 11-22 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  41. Summary Page 497 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 11

  42. Chapter 11 Complete