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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Matter and Life

  2. Chemistry • Are you a gambler? • Chemistry – The Central Science • Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, and its transformations

  3. Matter • Matter – any substance that has a mass and volume (takes up space) • 3 States of matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas

  4. Matter

  5. Matter • Element – the fundamental unit of all substances • Found on the Periodic table • Unique name and symbol • First letter of symbol is capitalized, the second is always lower case • Review the Periodic Table powerpoint for more information about the periodic table

  6. Matter • Compounds • Formed when elements combine in a specific ratio • Chemical Formula - A notation for a chemical compound using symbols and subscripts to show the exact ratio of atoms of each element that are present.

  7. Matter • Mixture • The combination of more than one pure substance • Homogenous • Heterogeneous

  8. Example Problem • Which of the following is not an example of an element? • A. Ni • B. O2 • C. CO • D. S8 • E. Co

  9. Example Problem • The chemical formula CoSO4 indicates the compound contains: • A. 1 carbon, 1 sulfur, 5 oxygens • B. 1 carbon, 1 sulfur, 4 oxygens • C. 1 cobalt, 1 sulfur, 4 oxygens • D. 1 copper, 1 sulfur, 4 oxygens • E. 1 cobalt, 1 sulfur, 5 oxygens

  10. Example Problem • Which of the following is not a mixture. • Pure blood • Bread • Toothpaste • Aluminum foil • Motor oil

  11. Identification of Matter • Matter is identified according to • Physical and chemical properties • Observation of physical and chemical changes

  12. Identification of Matter • Physical properties – those that can be described without altering chemical composition • Chemical properties – indicate how a chemical reacts under a set of conditions

  13. Identification of Matter CHEMICAL PHYSICAL Description by senses – shape, color, odor, soluble, miscible, etc. Measurable properties – density, boiling point, acidity, etc. -Burns -Oxidizes -Decomposition

  14. Example Problem • Which of the following is a physical property of aspirin? A) Aspirin can moderate some heart disorders when ingested. B) Aspirin does not decompose when tightly sealed in a bottle. C) Aspirin yields carbon dioxide and water vapor when burned. D) Aspirin can be pressed into tablets when mixed with cornstarch. E) Aspirin reacts with water to produce salicylic acid and acetic acid.

  15. Identification of Matter • Physical and Chemical Changes • Physical change – alters a physical property of the substance without altering the composition • Changes in state of matter

  16. Identification of Matter • Physical and Chemical Changes • Chemical change – the starting material’s composition via chemical reaction is altered • Illustrated using reaction equation. Reactants → products • Observations – bubbling, change of color, heat, etc.

  17. Example Problem • Which of the following causes a chemical change? A) winding an alarm clock B) turning on a flashlight C) slicing a tomato D) digging a hole E) pumping gasoline

  18. Example Problem • Consider the chemical reaction described as mercury(II) oxide → mercury + oxygen. Identify the reactant(s) in this example. A) heat B) mercury + oxygen C) mercury(II) oxide D) mercury E) oxygen

  19. Optional Homework • Text – 1.18, 1.24, 1.26, 1.28, 1.34, 1.36, 1.40, 1.44, 1.46, 1.56 • Chapter 1 Homework – found online

  20. Required Homework • Look at The Periodic Table power point online.