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Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing

Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing

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Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing

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  1. Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing Yu CaiDepartment of Computer ScienceUniversity of Colorado at Colorado Springs Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  2. Presentation outline • Introduction on mobile computing • Past of mobile computing • Present of mobile computing * Wireless LAN * GSM/GPRS/CDMA *Bluetooth * Mobile IP * Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) * PDA/SmartPhone/Laptop * Sensor/Zigbee Mesh * RFID * Security • Future of mobile computing Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  3. What is mobile computing? • Mobile computing is to describe technologies that • enable people to access network services anyplace, anytime, and anywhere, • with portable and wireless computing and communication devices. --- (where is this referenced? Provide citation!) • Aspects of mobility • User mobility • Between different geographical locations • Between different networks • Between different communication devices • Between different applications • Device portability • Between different geographical locations • Between different networks Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  4. Mobile Computing vs. Ubiquitous Computing/Pervasive Computing • Mobile Computing is a generic term describing the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices. This includes devices like laptops with wireless LAN technology, mobile phones, wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces, and USB flash drives. • Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp, or sometimes ubiqcomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. Another term for ubiquitous computing is pervasive computing. Promoters of this idea hope that embedding computation into the environment would enable people to move around and interact with computers more naturally than they currently do. -- Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  5. Applications of mobile computing • Vehicles • transmission of news, road condition, weather, music via DAB • personal communication using GSM • position via GPS • local ad-hoc network with vehicles close-by to prevent accidents, guidance system, redundancy • vehicle data (e.g., from busses, high-speed trains) can be transmitted in advance for maintenance • Medical • Nurses/Doctors in Medical offices are now using Wireless Tablet PCs/WLAN to collect and share patient information. • Sales • Sales representatives are using Tablet PCs with Smart phones for presentation, transmitting/access information among office, hotel, and customer location. • Emergencies • Early transmission of patient data to the hospital, current status, first diagnosis • Provide mobile infrastructure in dealing with Natural Disaster (earthquake, hurricane, fire), terrorist attacks, war, ... Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  6. Natural evolution of computing More Flexible Resource Usage Mobile Computing LANs + WorkStations Networking Timesharing Batch Single User OS Freedom from Collocation Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  7. Challenges in mobile computing • Mobility means changes • Hardware • Lighter, smaller, energy management, user interface • Low bandwidth, high bandwidth variability • Kbit/s to Mbit/s, bandwidth fluctuation • Security risk • Devices more vulnerable, endpoint authentication harder • Heterogeneous network • Different devices, interfaces and protocols • Location awareness • Locality adaptation • Higher loss-rates, higher delays, more jitter • Connection setup time, hand-off • Restrictive regulations of frequencies • Frequencies have to be coordinated Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  8. History of wireless communication • 1896 Guglielmo Marconi, • First demonstration of wireless telegraphy • Based on long wave, requiring very large transmitters • 1907 Commercial Trans-Atlantic Wireless Service • Huge ground stations: 30 x 100m antenna masts • 1920 Discovery of short waves by Marconi • Cheaper, smaller, better quality transmitters by vacuum tube • 1982 Start of GSM in Europe (1G analog) • 1983 Start of AMPS in America (1G analog) • 1992 Start of GSM (2G digital) • 1997 Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11 • 1998 Iridium satellite system • 66 satellites Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  9. History of wireless communication • 1999 Standardization of additional wireless LANs • IEEE standard 802.11b • Bluetooth • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): access to many services via the mobile phone • 2000 GSM with higher data rates (2.5G digital) • HSCSD offers up to 57,6kbit/s • First GPRS trials with up to 50 kbit/s • 2001 Start of 3G systems • IMT - 2000, several “members” of a “family”, CDMA2000 in Korea, UMTS tests in Europe Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  10. Overview of mobile devices • Smart phone • voice, data • simple graphical displays • Pager • receive only • tiny displays • simple text messages • Laptop • fully functional • standard applications Sensors, embedded controllers • Wearable device • human wearable • non standard I/O • PDA • graphical displays • character recognition performance Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  11. Overview of development wireless LAN cordlessphones cellular phones satellites 1980:CT0 1981: NMT 450 1982: Inmarsat-A 199x: proprietary 1983: AMPS 1984:CT1 1G 1986: NMT 900 1997: IEEE 802.11 1987:CT1+ 1988: Inmarsat-C 1989: CT 2 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1991: CDMA 1991: D-AMPS 1992: GSM 2G 1991: DECT 1993: PDC 2000: IEEE 802.11a 1994:DCS 1800 1998: Iridium 2003: IEEE 802.11g 2.5G 2000:GPRS 2007?: IEEE 802.11N 2001: IMT-2000 3G 20?? Fourth Generation? analogue 4G? digital Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  12. Overview of wireless services Data Rates Wireless LAN 10 Mbps IR 1 Mbps Cellular: GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 50 Kbps Satellite 10 Kbps Wide Local Yu Cai/MTU Talk Coverage Area

  13. AP: Access Point AP Wired Network AP AP Wireless LAN • IEEE 802.11 standard: a family of specifications for wireless LAN technology. The IEEE accepted the specification in 1997. • 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a wireless client and a base station or between two wireless clients. • 802.11: up to 2 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band. • 802.11b: up to 11 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band. • 802.11a/g: up to 54 Mbps in the 5/2.4 GHz band. • 802.11n: up to 220+ Mbps in the 2.4/5 GHz band (two proposals not approved yet). Vendors already selling 802.11pre-n devices. • 802.11 promises true vendor interoperability. Every vendor must have a viable 802.11 product strategy. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  14. Wireless LAN Security • WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy. • A basic wireless LAN security mechanism. • Easy to set up, commonly used. • Don’t rely on WEP for wireless security. There are a number of flaws in the WEP. • Many wireless home networks don’t even use WEP, which makes bad situation worse. • MAC address based access control mechanism doesn’t work. • Use other security mechanisms such as VPN, PEAP and TTLS. • Research project on PEAP / TTLS in our research group in University of Colorado. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  15. Wireless Ad Hoc Network • Wireless Ad Hoc Network (peer to peer) • A collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network in a decentralized manner. • No infrastructure, no default router available • “every” node needs to be a router • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) • Host movement frequent • Topology change frequent • Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks • A number of sensors spread across a geographical area. • Limited resources on sensors   Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  16. Mobile IP • Mobile IP is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address. • Motivation: • Changing the IP address is not desired when host moves. • However, traditional scheme requires to change IP address when host moves between networks. • Mobile IP provides an efficient, scalable mechanism for node mobility within the Internet. Mobile IP allows moving devices to maintain transport and higher-layer connections while moving. • Applications: • Mobile IP is most often found in wireless WAN environments where users need to carry their mobile devices across multiple LANs with different IP addresses. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  17. Mobile IP: Basic Idea Mobile Node (MN) Home Agent (HA) 2 Internet home network 3 receiver foreign network COA: ? Foreign Agent (FA) 1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN, HA intercepts packet (proxy ARP) 2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA, by encapsulation 3. FA forwards the packet to the MN 1 sender Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  18. Mobile IP: Basic Idea HA 1 MN Internet home network sender FA foreignnetwork 1. Sender sends to the IP address of the receiver as usual, FA works as default router CN Yu Cai/MTU Talk receiver

  19. Bluetooth • Bluetooth is used to connect and exchange information between devices like PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras wirelessly. • Named after a Denmark king Harold Bluetooth, who is known for his unification of previously warring tribes. • Low-cost, short range (up to 10m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz band. • Using the same frequency range, Bluetooth differs from Wi-Fi in that • Different multiplexing schemes. • Wi-Fi with higher throughput, greater distances, more expensive hardware, and higher power consumption. • Applications: • Wireless mouse, wireless headset Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  20. RFID: Radio Frequency Identification • RFID is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. • An RFID tag is a small object, such as an adhesive sticker, that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. • RFID tags contain antennas to enable them to receive and respond to radio-frequency queries from an RFID transceiver. • No line-of sight required (compared to laser scanners) • Withstand difficult environmental conditions (cold, frost etc.) • Categories: • Active RFID: battery powered, distances up to 100 m • Passive RFID: operating power comes from the reader over the air, distances up to 6 m • Applications: • Automated toll collection: RFIDs mounted in windshields allow commuters to drive through toll plazas without stopping Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  21. GSM • One of the most popular standards for mobile phones in the world. • Formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) • Now: Global System for Mobile Communication • European standard, moving to North America • More than one billion people use GSM phones as of 2005, making GSM the dominant mobile phone system worldwide with about 70% of the world's market. • GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. • One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smartcard containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  22. GSM Overview HLR OMC, EIR, AUC fixed network GMSC NSS with OSS VLR MSC MSC VLR BSC BSC RSS (Radio Subsystem) NSS (Network and switching subsystem) OSS (Operation Subsystem) MS (Mobile Station) BTS (Base Transceiver Station) BSC (Base Station Controller) MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center) GMSC (Gateway MSC) HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register) AUC (Authentication Center ) OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center ) RSS MS MS BTS Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  23. GPRS • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service • It is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. It is often described as "2.5G“. • GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the same transmission channel, only transmitting when they have data to send. • GPRS provides moderate speed data transfer, by allocating unused cell bandwidth to transmit data. • Poor bit rate in busy cells • Usually, GPRS data is billed per kilobytes of information transceived • In 3G mobile systems like UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), voice and data services will be mixed in a normal communication. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  24. PDA • Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops) • handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. • A basic PDA usually includes a clock, date book, address book, task list, memo pad and a simple calculator. • One major advantage of using PDAs is their ability to synchronize data with desktop, notebook and desknote computers. • The currently major PDA operating systems are: • Palm OS by PalmSource, Inc • Windows Mobile (Windows CE) by Microsoft • BlackBerry by Research In Motion • Symbian by a group of companies • According to a Gartner market study, the overall market for PDAs shrunk by 5% in the first quarter (Q1) of 2004, compared to Q1 2003. Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  25. Satellite Systems • Like cellular systems, except that the base stations (i.e., satellites) move as will as mobile devices • Satellite coverage attractive for areas of world not well served by existing terrestrial infrastructure: ocean areas, developing countries • IRIDIUM • Motorola • Voice, Data (2.4 kbps), Fax, Location Services • 66 satellites in 6 polar orbits (780 km) • Failed project Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  26. Future mobile and wireless networks • Shift industrial paradigm from piecewise solutions to end-to-end information systems • Improved radio technology and antennas • smart antennas, beam forming, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) 802.11N • dynamic spectrum allocation • Core network convergence • IP-based, quality of service, mobile IP • Ad-hoc technologies • spontaneous communication, power saving, redundancy • Simple and open service platform • intelligence at the edge, not in the network (as with IN) • more service providers, not network operators only Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  27. Integrated mobile computing Integration of heterogeneous fixed andmobile networks with varyingtransmission characteristics regional vertical handover metropolitan area horizontal handover campus-based in-car, in-house, personal area Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  28. IP-based next generation network ? SS7 signalling PSTN, CS core server farm, gateways, proxies broadcast gateways IP-based core MSC firewall, GGSN, gateway SGSN BSC router Internet GSM access points private WLAN private WPAN RNC UMTS public WLAN Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  29. Literature • Jochen Schiller – Mobile Communications • Ivan Stojmeniovic – Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing • Andrew Tanenbaum – Computer Networks • James D. Solomon – Mobile IP, the Internet unplugged • Charles E. Perkins – Ad-hoc networking • Papers, papers, papers, … • Mobile Computing Courses • MIT: • Stanford: • UC Berkley: • UT Austin: • • • • Yu Cai/MTU Talk

  30. Thank you! Yu Cai/MTU Talk