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Human Development-Modules 8-10

Human Development-Modules 8-10

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Human Development-Modules 8-10

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  1. Human Development-Modules 8-10

  2. Modules 8-10

  3. Piaget-Cognitive Development • Stage 1 – Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2) • Infant tries to coordinate senses with motor skills • Develops symbolic thought (mental images) • Object permanence – around 9 months, mastered 18 months Disc Psych

  4. Stage 2 – Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) • Has not achieved conservation – the awareness that as something changes in physical qualities, the quantity does not change • Centration-they only have the ability to focus on one aspect of a problem at a time • Irreversibility-they are unable to envision reversing an action that has already been done

  5. Egocentrism-they are unable to take another’s point of view Animisim-when child assigns human qualities to inanimate objects Artificialism-the child’s belief that natural objects are manmade Literalism-takes the spoken word seriously

  6. Stage 3 – Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) • Child attains conservation, ability to reverse, they are able to decentrate, experience less egocentrism, less artificialism, less animism, less literalism

  7. Stage 4 – Formal Operational Stage (11 years and up) • Child now achieves abstract, hypothetical thought

  8. Child achieves conservation of: • Number – Age 6 to 7 • Mass – Age 7 to 8 • Length – Age 7 to 8 • Area – Age 8-9

  9. Attachment • Bonding is defined at the tie an infant may form with a parent in the hours after birth • Attachment is a longer process, one that is more enduring

  10. How does attachment occur? • Babies will cry, which elicits care from parent • Social smiling – 4 to 6 weeks – which elicits joy and pleasure from parent • At 6 months, babies will display pleasure when parent returns after a short absence • At 9 months child begins to display separation anxiety (this appears to be a signal that attachment has formed)

  11. Lorenz and attachment • Imprinting- • Formation of a strong bond of attachment to the first moving thing seen right after birth • Lorenz made himself the first thing seen by goslings and sure enough they followed him • The goslings follow Lorenz everywhere

  12. The Harlow’s and attachment • Baby monkeys were separated from their mothers right after birth • Some were put in a room with a wire cylinder surrogate mother • Some were put in a room with a soft, terry-cloth covered cylinder When scared, the infants preferred to go to the soft “mother”-demonstrated that attachment is about who provides contact comfort

  13. Video clip

  14. John Bowlby • 1st to study human infants • Found those separated from mothers upon birth initially cried loudly and threw tantrums • Later, crying gave way to despair • Finally, infants showed emotional detachment

  15. Mary Ainsworth • Put children in “Strange Situation” – found three types of attachment • Secure type – use mothers as a secure based, look around occasionally, limited exploration in mother’s absence. Cried when mother left and were happy upon return. (65-70%) • Insecure-avoidant type – paid little attention to mother when she was in room, separated easily from mother. Showed little distress when she left and ignored her upon return. (20%)

  16. Insecure-ambivalent type – clung to mother and were reluctant to explore environment. High level of distress when mom left and still showed distress upon her return. (10 percent) Later studies by others revealed a 4th pattern-disorganized/disoriented attachment in which the infant appears confused and were unable to approach the mother directly for supported even when distressed Strange Situation

  17. Effects of Daycare and Attachment • Some believe that daycare interferes with attachment • Research has shown no effects on infant – mother attachment • Some research suggest that children in daycare may be more aggressive – though this may be due to mediocre daycare • High-quality daycare seems to have no negative effects

  18. Some studies suggest that children who attend daycare may do better on tests of language skills and math skills than children who stay at home • Attachment during infancy appears to carry over into later relationships

  19. Typically, attachment may be stronger with mother than father This may be changing today as more men are staying home to be primary caregiver Gender and attachment

  20. Adolescents respond to different parenting styles 1. Authoritarian parents – attempt to shape and control behavior based on a set standard of conduct, usually based on an absolute standard. Tend to use harsh discipline. Parenting styles

  21. 2. Authoritative – attempt to direct their children’s activities in a rational and intelligent way. They are supportive, loving, and committed, encourage verbal give-and-take, and discuss rules and policies with their children. Value being expressive and independent but are still demanding. These children tend to be competent. Girls tend to be achievement-oriented and boys tend to be friendly and cooperative.

  22. 3. Permissive parents – less controlling and behave with a non-punishing and accepting attitude toward children’s impulses, desires and actions.

  23. Parenting styles tend to influence the adolescent’s development of independence • Authoritarian-less behavior problems, but more conforming and lower self-esteem • Authoritative-teens more friendly, cooperative, better adjusted to college • Permissive-less socially assertive and less achievement oriented • The better the communication between parents and children, the less risk-taking behavior children engage in

  24. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Man

  25. Erikson Quote • "...children cannot be fooled by empty praise and condescending encouragement. They may have to accept artificial bolstering of their self-esteem in lieu of something better, but what I call their accruing ego identity gains real strength only from wholehearted and consistent recognition of real accomplishment, that is, achievement that has meaning in their culture"

  26. Erikson’s eight stages of man • Erikson is the first psychologist to go beyond adolescence and recognize that life still changes beyond this time • This is perhaps because he was practicing at a time when adolescence was a factor • The eight stages are:

  27. Trust vs. Mistrust • Birth to 1 year • To develop trust – infant’s needs must be met • Must be played with, cuddled • When care is inconsistent or rejecting, mistrust develops – child becomes suspicious and fearful

  28. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • Ages 2-3 • Child developing new motor and mental abilities • Parents should encourage autonomy • If parents are impatient and does things for child, or if they are critical, the child will begin to doubt themselves and feel shame • Caution: don’t give too much autonomy

  29. Initiative vs. Guilt • Ages 4-5 • Child becomes master of his body • Begins tasks like riding a bike, running, cutting • Children who are given the freedom and opportunity to engage in tasks have sense of initiative reinforced • Parents should not try to hinder fantasy or play

  30. If parents make the child feel bad or feel like a nuisance with their questions, the child will develop a sense of guilt

  31. Industry vs. Inferiority • Ages 6-11 • Elementary school years • Love for opposite sex parent is repressed • Children really begin to learn and play by rules • Concern for how things work, how things are made, and what things actually do • Children who are encouraged to make things, do things or build things will develop a sense of industry

  32. Parents who see their child as mischievous or as messy will help the child develop a sense of inferiority School plays a critical role during this period-friends and teachers play an integral role in development It is in this stage that lifelong academic failure can begin

  33. Identity vs. Role Confusion • Ages 12-18 (some argue up to 23 today) • Seeks to find a romantic partner due to reawakened Oedipal complex • Begin hypothetical thinking, thinking about what others think of them • Adolescent works to integrate everything they know about themselves to create an identity

  34. When an adolescent cannot attain a sense of personal identity, they show role confusion, a sense of not knowing who they are or where they belong to. • Role confusion often seen with delinquent adolescents or promiscuous young girls • For some, having a negative self identity is better than having no identity at all

  35. Intimacy vs. Isolation • Ages – late adolescence to young to early middle age • People will reach out to find an intimate relationship • Able to care about another without losing oneself in the process • Parent’s have indirectly contributed to the individual’s success or failure at the earlier stages.

  36. Generativity vs. Self-Absorption (Stagnation) • Ages – middle age • Concerned with others beyond immediate family, with future generations, nature of society • Those who don’t meet this need tend to fall into focus only on their personal needs and comforts

  37. May see the person beginning to question how prosperous they were or how well they have done for themselves. • Men may go through a mid-life crisis; women may go through empty nest syndrome

  38. Integrity vs. Despair • Ages – elderly • Time for reflection on life • Hope to look back on life with satisfaction • Some look at life as a series of missed opportunities and now realizes it is too late • These people may look back and have despair over what might have been

  39. Kohlberg’s Moral DevelopmentWhat would you do if….? • You are in your senior year of high school. You are close to failing your senior English class. You will pass the class if you do very well on your English final exam. • You are looking through your English teacher’s desk for a stapler when you come across the final exam. Do you take it?

  40. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning • Level 1 – Preconventional Stage – child’s moral reasoning is based on external authority • Stage 1 – Punishment orientation – based on being or not being punished (ages 1 to 5) • Stage 2 – Naïve Reward Orientation – based on receiving or not receiving a reward (age 5 to 10)

  41. Level 2 – Conventional Level – child sees rules as necessary for maintaining order. • Stage 3 – Good boy/good girl-seeks approval and avoids disapproval from others (8 to 12 years old) • Stage 4 – Authority Orientation – morals based on society’s rules which should be obeyed. Rules are very rigid (around 10 to 14 years old)

  42. Level 3 – Postconventional Level – working within one’s own personal code of ethics • Stage 5 – Social Contract Orientation – Morals based on society’s rules, however rules are now questioned and seen as fallible (early adolescence) • Stage 6 – Individual Principles and Conscience Orientation – Morals based on justice, where the person does what they believe is right (adolescence)

  43. Adolescence • G. Stanley Hall calls it sturm and drang • Physical development – primary sex and secondary sex characteristics develop • Adolescents tend to develop the imaginary audience and the personal fable

  44. Piaget and egocentrism • Imaginary audience is when one believes that others are very concerned about what is happening with them • Personal fable is an exaggerated sense of one’s uniqueness in life – so unique that no one could possibly understand their feelings

  45. Gilligan and Kohlberg • Carol Gilligan felt that Kohlberg was biased towards women in his theory of moral development • Stated that women adopt a more care orientation-more on caring and compassion • Men develop a more justice orientation-more on fairness and rights

  46. Erikson and adolescence • Stated that children in adolescence strive to be free of parental and authoritative control • Leads to withdrawal from parents and other family members

  47. Marcia and adolescence • Stated that adolescents end up in 1 of 4 places – identity statuses • Foreclosure-when the child is forced to live out the dreams of the parents. May lead to bitterness and resentment • Diffusion-when child has not achieved an identity and feels confused about who they are and where they want to go in life. Often take dead-end jobs