1450-1750 As The World Turns:Western Development, Expansion, and ColonizationChapters 16,17,18,19 AP World History Mr. Bartula
1450-1750: The Early Modern Period • The balance of power shifted • Western Europe took control of most trade networks • The Americas became part of the world wide trade network • New scientific, religious, and cultural ideas developed
Consequences of These Changes • Western Europe moved towards global dominance • Exchanges of foods, peoples, animals, and diseases increased • Islamic, Asian,African, and Native American societies were strained • China remained the dominant society
Trade in 1450-1750 • The world economy grew and became genuinely global. • The Atlantic and the western Pacific were the two main trade centers • Silver from the Americas and slaves from Africa played major roles in the global economy • Western Europeans controlled trade networks, but China was still at the center of world trade.
Population Changes 1450-1750 • Population growth in Eurasia due to new foods, better agricultural technology, proto-industrialization, and medical care • Population decline in the Americas due to European invasions, diseases. • Population decline in Africa due to the Atlantic slave trade
The Military Revolution 1450-1750 • Western Europeans gained an advantage: 1. Superior weaponry based on gunpowder. 2. Strong, swift, maneuverable ships capable of sailing anywhere. 3. Navigational tools (compass, astrolabe) derived from earlier work done by Arab and Asian scholars 4. New sea and land fighting techniques
Land based gunpowder weaponry • Field Cannon (from ca 1420) • Muskets
Consequences of Close Order Drill • Required years of training • Led to establishment of permanent, professional armies • Soldiers’ salaries required taxes • Taxes required bureaucracies • Bureaucracies led to centralized governments
Consequences of the Military Revolution • Funding required development of modern taxation, banking, and credit systems • Concentrated political power in centralized governments with bureaucracies • Large, competitive nation states led to chronic warfare and colonial empires.
1450: The beginning of Western hegemony • Western Europe had effectively recovered from the calamitous 14th century. • The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 • The Ottoman Turks were militarily, rather than economically, oriented: “conquest over commerce”
1450: The beginning of Western hegemony • The Ottomans now controlled all land trade routes through the Middle East • The Ottomans placed customs duties on European merchants using the trade routes • Europeans looked for new trade routes to the East (the “potential niche” which sparked Western Expansion).
1450: The rest of the world • Ming China: sea exploration abandoned by 1433 • Mughal India: land oriented empire • Native Americans: isolated • Africa: heterogeneous societies, land oriented • Western Europe was basically “the only player.”
Why Europe? • Competition!: • Economic • Political • Social, Religious, and Ideological The Europeans were ready to rule and conquer, but where?
India and China? • For most of 1450-1750, both were too well organized and too strong for European domination. • Europeans could trade with them, but not exploit them.
Africa? • Europeans had the military power to conquer Africa in 1450-1750, but could not deal with: • Tropical diseases (“The White Man’s Graveyard”)
The Americas? • Europeans had the military and economic power to conquer them, and more importantly, Europeans had: • GERMS! • Thus in 1450-1750 Western Europeans gained control over and began the exploitation of North and South America
Western Europe’s First Expansions • Three archipelagoes: • Azores • Madeiras • Canarys
The Azores • Originally uninhabited, reached by Europeans in 1300s • First Portuguese settlement in 1439 • Good environment for European plants and animals • Quickly became a “Little Europe”
The Madeiras • Originally uninhabited • First Portuguese arrived in 1420s • Fought over by Portuguese and Spanish • Sugar cane producing, slave economy • Environmental problems due to introduction of non-native plants and animals • Rugged, mountainous terrain
The Canaries • Original inhabitants called Guanches • Europeans arrived as early as 1290s • Fought over by Spanish, French, and Portuguese • Good environment for European plants and animals • Conflict with Guanches throughout 1400s.
The Guanches: First Branch of the Human Race to Face Extinction • Stone Age people facing gunpowder weapons • European diseases • Europeans did not consider them fully human • Extinct by end of 1500s • Prototype for future European/indigenous contact
Spain and Portugal: First European Nation-States to Begin Exploration and Colonization • Recently unified after the Reconquista • Fervently Catholic • Powerful monarchies determined to increase their influence.
Mercantilism: The Economic Basis of Exploration and Colonization • Early form of capitalism • National governments sought to encourage exports and discourage imports • Internal improvements (roads, canals) to improve national trade • Colonies needed for two reasons: 1. sources of raw materials 2.markets for finished goods
Portugal: Find a sea route to the East by sailing around Africa • Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors in early 1400s • Sailors learned to sail caravel ships and use the new instruments • By 1488, Portuguese sailors had reached the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, they reached India
Spain: Find a route to the East by going West • 1492: Christopher Columbus “discovered” islands to the West. • Columbus and other explorers claimed the territories for Spain • By 1500, it was clear that this was a “New World”
The Line of Demarcation and Treaty of Tordesillas • Drawn by the Pope to divide the world between Spain and Portugal • Brazil placed within Portugal’s lands
Other European Nations and Exploration • By late 1500s, Spain and Portugal lost their naval dominance • Britain, France, and Holland used narrow beam ships to gain colonial leadership in North America, the Cape of Good Hope, India, and the Indies
Impact of the European Colonization of the Americas • Europeans were interested in exploitation of the wealth of the New World. • The Native Americans were regarded as inferior, expendable people to be used as slaves • Spain exploited the mineral wealth of Mexico, Central and South America, especially silver
Impact of the European Colonization of the Americas • Portugal established Brazil as a sugar cane growing area • Sugar cane was also established in the Caribbean • Plantations were established throughout the Americas to produce agricultural goods
Impact of the European Colonization of the Americas • The Native American population, especially in Latin America, declined due to disease (virgin soil epidemics) and overwork • Africans were imported, beginning in the early 1500s, as replacements for Native Americans.
Alfred W. Crosby • Author of “The Columbian Exchange” and “Ecological Imperialism” • Developed the term Columbian Exchange to describe the transfer of people, plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds after 1492
Food Exchanges Between Old and New World • Corn and potatoes were the two most important American foods transferred to Europe. • Tobacco became an important American export to Europe • Coffee and sugar were two “Old World” crops transferred to the Americas.
Changes in Western Europe • The Renaissance had encouraged scientific inquiry and curiosity • The “discovery” of the New World and the importation of gold and silver led to the Price Revolution (inflation) and economic instability • Johann Gutenberg’s printing press made books available to more people • Nation-state competition led to conflict
The Reformation • Martin Luther advocated “the priesthood of all believers” • Jean Calvin developed the theory of predestination • These and other reformers caused a split between Roman Catholics and Protestants • Religious wars were fought from 1517-1648
Spain’s “Century of Gold” • 1550-1650 “El Siglo de Oro” Spain was the greatest power in Europe • Under King Philip II, Spain used its wealth and power to fight the Reformation and restore Catholicism • Spain persecuted non-Catholics with the Inquisition and fought to maintain control of its American empire.