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The Developing Person

The Developing Person

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The Developing Person

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  1. The Developing Person … he allowed himself to be swayed by his conviction that human beings are not born once and for all on the day their mothers give birth to them, but that life obliges them over and over again to give birth to themselves. Gabriel Garcia Marquez

  2. Developmental Psychology • Studies physical, cognitive & psychosocial changes across the life span • Two methods of conducting research • Longitudinal research • Study the same participants over a long period of time • Problems: expensive and possible drop-outs • Cross-sectional research • Groups of Ps, of different ages, studied at same time • Problem: cohort peculiarities

  3. Physical Development - Prenatal • Zygote stage: conception to week 2 • Moves to embryonic stage when multicell ball attaches to uterine wall • Embryonic stage: end of wk 2 to wk 8 • Genes are in the background directing progress • Boys become boys when testosterone is secreted, producing male sex organs • Fetal stage: end of wk 8 to birth • Movement felt by mom by 4th month • By 7th most everything is developed • Focus is on growth!

  4. Physical Development • Premature birth • Smaller in weight, though not always in length • Less physically & cognitively developed • Usually up to 2 months early still has a fighting chance • Teratogens • Noxious substance or factors that can disrupt prenatal development • X-rays: disrupt development of brain cells • Drugs: abnormal physical & psychological development • Alcohol: FAS; mental retardation, facial disfigurement

  5. Physical Development • Infancy: birth to 2 yrs • Babies are born to survive • Rooting reflex • Cry when hungry, smile to reinforce closeness of caregiver • Quickly learn to recognize mother’s smell, voice, and face • Perception • Newborns can’t focus on distant objects • Visual cliff (see page 167 in book) • Depth perception develops between 4th & 6th month • Motor development • Cephalocaudal trend (head to foot growth and motor control) • Proximodistal trend (center out growth and motor control)

  6. History of Developmental Ψ • Medieval Times (500 – 1500 AD) • Preformationism: Children were viewed as miniature adults • Reformation (1500’s) • Puritanism: Children are born evil and stubborn • Enlightenment (1600’s and 1700’s) • John Locke – tabula rasa • Rousseau – children are noble savages • Darwin (1800’s) • Ontogeny & Phylogeny, and Baby Biographies • Logs of infant development • Focus on maturation & development

  7. History of Developmental Ψ • 1890s • G. Stanley Hall • Founder of child psychology • Focus on heredity • 1920s • Remember behaviorism? • 1950s • First look at other ages in the lifespan (Erikson & Piaget) • 1960s • Behavioral genetics • How heredity & life experience interact in affecting development • Ex: divorce, empathy, attachment styles

  8. Notes Does Physical Development occur in stages? Prenatal Development 1.Germinal Stage - First 2 weeks 2.Embryonic Stage - 2 weeks to 2 months 3.Fetal Stage - 3rd month to birth

  9. Notes Reflexes • Rooting & Sucking Reflex • Withdrawal Reflex • Startle or Moro Reflex • Grasp or Palmer Reflex • Babinski Reflex • Sphincter Reflex • Sneezing, Coughing, Yawning, Blinking

  10. Stages of Child Development For each behavior listed below, guess the approximate age at which a child performs the behavior. __________ 1. Distinguishes between self and what is not self __________ 2. Forms social attachment to primary caregiver __________ 3. Can dress him or herself alone __________ 4. Can run, climb, and throw a ball __________ 5. Can distinguish a sweet taste from a bitter taste __________ 6. Is toilet trained __________ 7. Wants to go out and play with other children __________ 8. Awareness of object permanence

  11. Stages of Child Development For each behavior listed below, guess the approximate age at which a child performs the behavior. __________ 9. Grasps the concept of conservation of number __________ 10. Grasps the concept of conservation of volume __________ 11. Begins to understand simple cause-and-effect relationships __________ 12. Plays pat-a-cake __________ 13. Has a vocabulary of around 1,000 words __________ 14. Can sit up with some support __________ 15. Can walk alone __________ 16. Recognizes household members

  12. Stages of Child Development Answers 1. 1 year 9. 6 years 2. 6 months 10. 11 years 3. 6 years 11. 1-2 years 4. 4 years 12. 9-12 months 5. Newborn 13. 3 years 6.1 1/2 years 14. 4 months 7. 4-5 years 15. 15 months 8. 1 year 16. 3-6 months

  13. Piaget “Operating on the Mind”

  14. Piaget • A proponent of the belief that intelligence develops qualitatively with age, as well as quantitatively • Genetic Epistemology • Intellect develops in gradual stages, much as the body does • Hence the term ‘genetic’ does not refer to our genes’ influence on our intelligence but rather as a reference to development

  15. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev. • Themes of cognitive development • Schemas • Assimilation • Accommodation • Sensorimotor • Birth to 2 years • Learn to coordinate sensory experience & motor behavior • Object constancy (a.k.a. object permanence)

  16. Object Permanence

  17. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev. • Preoperational • Age: 2 to 7 years • Language more sophisticated but still have trouble with mental manipulation of information • Can’t engage in certain mental operations • Conservation • Reversible mental representations • Egocentrism

  18. Conservation

  19. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev. • Concrete Operational • Age: 7 to 11 years • Child learns to logically reason about objects • Understands • Conservation (can make transitive inferences) • Formal Operational • Adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic and logical ways

  20. Piaget’s 4 stages Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Formal Operational (birth to 2 years) (2 to 6 years) Stage Stage (6 to 12 years) (12 to adulthood) Thinking is displayed in Beginning of symbolic Ability to understand Thinking becomes more action, such as the representation. Language conservation problems. abstract and hypothetical. grasping, sucking, and first appears; child begins Ability to think of several The individual can looking schemes. Child to draw pictures that dimensions or features at consider many alternative gradually learns to represent things. Child the same time. Child can solutions to a problem, discover the location of cannot represent a series now do elementary make deductions, hidden objects at about of actions in his or her arithmetic problems, such contemplate the future, eighteen months, when head in order to solve as judging the quantity of and formulate personal the concept of object problems. liquid containers and ideals and values. permanence is fully checking addition of understood. numbers by subtraction.

  21. Piaget’s 4 stages (1) Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years) Thinking is displayed in action, such as the grasping, sucking, and looking schemes. Child gradually learns to discover the location of hidden objects at about eighteen months, when the concept of object permanence is fully understood.

  22. Piaget’s 4 stages (2) Preoperational Stage (2 to 6 years) Beginning of symbolic representation. Language first appears; child begins to draw pictures that represent things. Child cannot represent a series of actions in his or her head in order to solve problems.

  23. “Cut it up into a LOT of slices Mom, I’m really hungry!”

  24. Piaget’s 4 stages (3) Concrete Operational Stage (6 to 12 years) Ability to understand conservation problems. Ability to think of several dimensions or features at the same time. Child can now do elementary arithmetic problems, such as judging the quantity of liquid containers and checking addition of numbers by subtraction

  25. Piaget’s 4 stages (4) Formal Operational Stage (12 years to adulthood) Thinking becomes more abstract and hypothetical. The individual can consider many alternative solutions to a problem, make deductions, contemplate the future, and formulate personal ideals and values.

  26. PIAGET – COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT A = SENSORIMOTOR B = PREOPERATIONAL C = CONCRETE-OPERATIONAL D = FORMAL-OPERATIONAL ___ 1. Artificialism ___ 6. Animism ___ 2. Subjective moral judgements ___ 7. Conservation ___ 3. Abstract thinking ___ 8. Assimilation of novel stimulation to ready-made schemes ___ 4. Object permanence ___ 9. Objective moral judgements ___ 5. Children emerge as theoretical scientists ___ 10. Reversibility

  27. PIAGET – COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Answers: 1. B 6. B 2. C 7. C 3. D 8. A 4. A 9. B 5. D 10. C

  28. Question ???? Question - Why does a 1 year old child like playing peek-a-boo, but a 7 year old child thinks the game is silly? Answer - Object Permanence

  29. OBJECT PERMANENCE and CONSERVATION

  30. Object Permanence and Conservation • 1.The following demonstrations will be aided by the presence of two children, one about eight months old and one about seven years old. However, they can easily be done without any subjects. • 2.Hold up the handkerchief and the keys. Place the keys under the handkerchief and say: If I asked you where the keys are, you would know, of course. But consider the stages an infant must go through to find the hidden object.

  31. Object Permanence and Conservation STAGE 1 (FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT A MONTH) An infant’s eyes do not (and may be unable to) follow the object, even as you move it in front of the infant’s face.

  32. Object Permanence and Conservation STAGE 2 (ABOUT 1 TO 4 MONTHS) An infant’s eyes can follow a moving object, but to the infant the object does not exist if it is not visible – if, for example, it is under the handkerchief. Out of sight is out of mind.

  33. Object Permanence and Conservation STAGE 3 (4 MONTHS TO ALMOST A YEAR) The infant will search for a missing object in the place where the object usually appears. For example, if you put the keys in the palm of your hand, close your hand, and then open your hand, and then open it and close it again, the infant will look for the keys in your hand. But if you put the keys under the handkerchief, the infant will still look in your hand.

  34. Object Permanence and Conservation STAGE 4 (ABOUT A YEAR) At this stage the infant will learn the concept of object permanence and search for the keys under the handkerchief. Until the infant learns this concept, nothing exists outside the infant’s field of vision.

  35. Object Permanence and Conservation

  36. Piaget’s 4 stages Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Formal Operational (birth to 2 years) (2 to 6 years) Stage Stage (6 to 12 years) (12 to adulthood) Thinking is displayed in Beginning of symbolic Ability to understand Thinking becomes more action, such as the representation. Language conservation problems. abstract and hypothetical. grasping, sucking, and first appears; child begins Ability to think of several The individual can looking schemes. Child to draw pictures that dimensions or features at consider many alternative gradually learns to represent things. Child the same time. Child can solutions to a problem, discover the location of cannot represent a series now do elementary make deductions, hidden objects at about of actions in his or her arithmetic problems, such contemplate the future, eighteen months, when head in order to solve as judging the quantity of and formulate personal the concept of object problems. liquid containers and ideals and values. permanence is fully checking addition of understood. numbers by subtraction.

  37. KOHLBERG is holding a CONVENTION on MORALS

  38. Question ???? In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to barrow the money, but could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, ”no” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.(Kohlberg 1969) 1.Should the husband have done that? 2.Why?

  39. Kohlberg’s Moral Development stages

  40. THE GOLDEN RULE Do unto others as you would have others do unto you! Is this an example of a moral rule of conduct that is universal? BUDDHISM “Hurt not others with that which pains yourself.” Hinduism “This is the sum of duty: do not to others which if done to thee, would cause thee pain.”

  41. Examples of Kohlberg’s ideas in U.S. Congressional Debates The following are actual quotations from U.S. debates on a resolution supporting the administration’s policy on Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. Arguments Against U.S. Involvement “We shouldn’t consider war…because it would hurt our economy.” (1) “because we’ll have more money for domestic issues…” (2) “because we don’t want to appear too militaristic.” (3) “because war is killing and killing is against the law.” (4) “even though the situation is bad, war is damaging to people and property and society agrees that is bad…” (5) “although atrocities have been committed, it would be an even greater atrocity to wage war…” (6)

  42. Examples of Kohlberg’s ideas in U.S. Congressional Debates continued Arguments For U.S. Involvement “We should consider oil because our oil is threatened…”(1) “because we can gain security of the oil supply…” (2) “because we don’t want the world to see us as weak…” (3) “because the U.N. has laid down written resolutions which should be upheld…” (4) “the situation is extreme enough that society’s rights are threatened and need to be define…(5) “Evil is on the march, and it would be morally wrong to allow it to continue…(6)

  43. Erikson

  44. APPROX. AGE CRISIS NAME CRISIS DESCRIPTION If an infant is well cared for, she will develop TRUST faith in the future. But if she experiences too VS. much uncertainty about being taken care of, she 0 - 1 MISTRUST will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion Here the child learns self-control and self- AUTONOMY assertion. But if he receives too much criticism, 1 - 2 VS. he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts DOUBT about his independence. When a child begins to make her own decisions, 2 – 5 INITIATIVE constant discouragement or punishment could VS. lead to guilt and a loss of initiative. GUILT The child masters skills and takes pride in his INDUSTRY competence. Too much criticism of his work at 5 – PUBERTY VS. this stage can lead to long-term feelings of INFERIORITY inferiority. Erikson

  45. Erikson APPROX. AGE CRISIS NAME CRISIS DESCRIPTION The teenager tries to develop her own separate ADOLESCENCE IDENTITY identity while “fitting-in” with her friends. VS. Failure leads to confusion over who she is. ROLE CONFUSION A person secure in his own identity can proceed EARLY INTIMACY to an intimate partnership in which he makes ADULTHOOD VS. compromises for another. The isolated person ISOLATION may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship but always avoids true closeness. A person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in MIDDLE AGE GENERATIVITY herself and tries to hang onto the past. VS. Generativity involves a productive life that will STAGNATION serve as an example to the next generation. Some people look back over life with a sense of LATER INTEGRITY satisfaction and accept both the bad and the ADULTHOOD VS. good. Others face death with nothing but regrets. DESPAIR

  46. ERIK ERIKSON - PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1. According to Erikson, most adolescents are in a stage labeled… 2. What does Erikson mean by generativity? 3. During which stage does a child learn self-assertion? 4. At what age do most children begin to take pride in their own competence? 5. What did Erikson mean by isolation? 6. What is the positive outcome of the stage that Erikson calls TRUST vs. MISTRUST? 7. According to Erikson, what are the challenges that a young adult must face? Do you agree with Erikson’s assessement?

  47. A CLOSER LOOK AT ADOLESCENCE EGO IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION Erikson Stage 5 CONFLICT WITH THE FAMILY 1. Independence 2. Restrictions 3. Sexual Desires

  48. Compare Shakespeare with Erikson

  49. All slides envisioned and brought to be by: Rory Weaver Class of 2000-2001