Download
airborne contaminants lab n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Airborne Contaminants Lab PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Airborne Contaminants Lab

Airborne Contaminants Lab

148 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Airborne Contaminants Lab

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Airborne Contaminants Lab

  2. Topics • Overview of workplace health and its regulation • Particulates and microscopy • Gases and vapors • Monitoring • Real time • Noise

  3. Format • Lecture with break • Break • Hands-on

  4. Practical Application • The terms • “Environmental Engineering” • “Environmental work • Often extend to analyzing the workplace environment for contaminants • hence offering opinions on human health • firms often practice in this area.

  5. Alphabet Soup • EPA • OSHA • NIOSH • AIHA • ACGIH

  6. Alphabet Soup • OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration • NIOSH, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health • AIHA, American Industrial Hygiene Association • ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

  7. OSHA and NIOSH • Created in 1970’s by same act of congress • MSHA was earlier, • OSHA • Law enforcement • Department of Labor • NIOSH • Science • Center for Disease Control in PHS.

  8. AIHA and ACGIH • Industrial hygiene = science of workplace health • AIHA accredits laboratories • ACGIH produces TLV’s • “safe values”

  9. Occupational Standards • OSHA, PELs • (CFR , Code of Federal Regulations, on line) • PELs • ACGIH, TLVs • NIOSH, RELs • DFK, MAKs

  10. TLVs • Of the approximately 450 standards • 15% have human or otherwise well tested • 25% have some animal testing • 60% Based on “analogy,” “supposed,” or “traditional.”

  11. OSHA • OSHA main site OSHA • 1910 Subpart Z • 1910.1000 • History of Tables • ANSI list • lawsuits

  12. Contaminant Particulates • Asbestos • Quartz • Dust

  13. Asbestos is useful • Asbestos used since ancient times • Fireproof • WW II ship building • Insulation • 1950’s Schools • Sound proofing, • Many materials • Strength of fibers, chemical resistant

  14. Asbestos kills • About 10,000 persons die each year from asbestos related disease • 1,000 from mesothelioma • 4,000 from asbestosis • 5,000 from lung cancer • (correlated with cigarette smoking) • 20 to 40 year latency period • Airborne fibers, not parent material

  15. Asbestos is regulated • OSHA regulates workplace exposures • EPA regulates schools • EPA regulates disposal process

  16. Insert SiO4: Asbestos Minerals • Asbestos is a commercial term • Polysilicate minerals

  17. 10 u +/-

  18. lisa m applebee: structure Amphiboles • Amosite (Mg, Fe) • Actinolite (Ca, Mg, Fe) • Anthophyllite (Mg, Fe) • Crocidolite (Na, Fe+++, Fe++) • Tremolite (Ca, Mg)

  19. Serpentine • Chrysotile (Mg)

  20. Respiratory Tract • Anatomy • Physiology • Notes on the asbestos diseases

  21. Asbestosis • Fibrotic lung disease • Lungs fill with scar tissue • restrictive lung disease, stiff • oxygen transport reduced • breathing labored

  22. Gallery • Boston University School of Public Health • Breath Taken: The Landscape & Biography of asbestos • http://www/busph.bu.edu/Gallery

  23. Normal Lung:

  24. Honeycombing

  25. Asbesosis

  26. Asbestos, clubbing of fingers

  27. Hairdresser, combed from hair

  28. Mesothelioma • Cancer of the lining of the abdominal cavity • Or thoracic cavity • Fatal

  29. childhood exposure father worked in plant and died of asbestosis note tumor on right side, fills with fluid

  30. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer • 2 deaths per million populations • But in a study of asbestos insulation workers there were 175 deaths from mesothelioma.

  31. Lung Cancer • 32 of 41 studies indicated statistically significant increase in lung cancer of asbestos workers • Non-smokers were 5-fold higher than non-exposed • Smoking asbestos workers were much higher 50- to 90-fold

  32. Toxicology, Fiber type • Some studies indicate chrysotile can cause mesothelioma • Most indicate amphiboles, especially crocidolite • Some authors have concluded amphiboles are 100 times more potent than chrysotile in inducing mesothelioma.

  33. particle fiber

  34. Clearance and fiber size • Residents of cities breath several hundred grams of particles over a lifetime • Only a few grams at autopsy • Most are cleared from lung • Sorting in the airways by aerodynamic diameter • Thin fibers penetrate much deeper than round particles of similar diameter

  35. Clearance mechanism by location of deposition • Nasal clearance: • in from of ciliated, by sneezing or blowing • further back swept down and swallowed • Tracheobronchial: cleared via cilia • mucociliary escalator • Alveolar • macrophage

  36. Robins pg. 757 Macrophages • Digest particles • Carry towards ciliated airway • Can wind up in lymph nodes and elsewhere • especially is “surface” route is overwhelmed

  37. Macrophage

  38. Macrophage

  39. Clearance • Fibers less than 1 micron cleared half-life of 10 days • Fibers longer than 16 micron, half-life over 100 days • Maximum fiber length of one macrophage about 16-17 microns

  40. Disease vs. fiber length • Animal studies • Dust rich in f < 5  less lung cancer • Dust rich in f > 5  more lung cancer • Asbestosis associated f > 2  • Lung cancer f > 5  • Mesothelioma f > 10 