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Ecology PowerPoint Presentation

Ecology

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Ecology

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  1. Ecology The study of how organisms interact with living and nonliving things that surround them. 0

  2. Living vs. Nonliving Abiotic: Non-living factors in the environment Ex. Air, water, soil, temperature 0

  3. Biotic: Living factors in the environment Ex. Plants, animals, decomposers (bacteria and fungi) Living vs. Nonliving 0

  4. Organization of Life Species: a group of organisms that only reproduces with those like themselves Population: Members of the same species in the same area 0

  5. Community: All the species (plants and animals) that occupy an area Ecosystems: All of the living and nonliving things that occupy an area Organization of Life 0

  6. Biome: Geographical regions classified by climate, dominant plants and animals Biosphere: Any region of the Earth that supports life Organization of Life 0

  7. Terrestrial biomes Savanna Chaparral Tropical forests Tundra Temperate grassland Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Desert

  8. Examples of Organization Species: Blanding’s Turtle Population: Blanding’s Turtles in AHS wetlands Community: All the different species in AHS wetland 0

  9. Arlington’s Threatened Turtle 0

  10. Arlington’s Created Wetland 0

  11. Ecosystem: All the abiotic and biotic species in AHS wetland Biome: Temperate Deciduous Forest Biosphere: On Earth, where there is life Examples of Organization 0

  12. Habitat vs. Niche Habitat: the specific environment that an organism calls its “home” Niche: the specific ROLE (job) that an organism plays in the environment 0

  13. Requirements for an Ecosystem Must be a constant flow of energy into the ecosystem Cycling of materials (O2, CO2, N2, H2O) between living organisms (biotic) and the environment 0

  14. Feeding Relationships in an Ecosystem PRODUCERS Autotrophs - organisms that can make their own food through photosynthesis Starting point (base) of all food chains and food webs 0

  15. CONSUMERS Heterothrophs – organisms that can not produce their own food; must consume food Feeding Relationships in an Ecosystem 0

  16. Examples of Heterotrophs Herbivores - animals that feed on plants Ex. Rabbit (PREY) Carnivores - animals that feed on other animals Ex. Red-tailed Hawk (PREDATOR) 0

  17. Omnivores - animals that feed on both plants and animals Ex. Bear Decomposers- organisms that break down dead or decaying organic matter, (has C2, H2, and O2), and returns the nutrients to the soil Examples of Heterotrophs 0

  18. Example of Decomposers

  19. Scavengers- Organisms that feed off of dead organisms Ex. Turkey Vulture Examples of Heterotrophs 0

  20. Symbiotic Relationships Close association between 2 organisms Parasitism: one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed (+,-) Deer Tick on Dog

  21. Parasitism Fly larvae on bird chick

  22. Commensalism- one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed or helped(+,0) Symbiotic Relationships Owl in Tree

  23. Mutualism • Mutualism- both organisms benefit (+,+) Cleaner Shrimp

  24. Self-sustaining Ecosystems Growth and Development of organisms depends on: physical conditions of biome & resources available Competition- struggle for resources among species

  25. Limiting factors- biotic and abiotic factors in the environment that limit the size of the population Ex. Available space, food, mates Self-sustaining Ecosystems

  26. Carrying Capacity Amount of organisms an ecosystem can support Carrying capacity of an area is determined by its limiting factors A population may only continue to grow until it has reached its carrying capacity

  27. Graph of carrying capacity

  28. Pyramid of Life Tertiary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Producers

  29. THE PYRAMID OF LIFE TERTIARY CONSUMERS ------------------------ SECONDARY CONSUMERS -------------------------------- PRIMARY CONSUMERS -------------------------------------- PRODUCERS

  30. THE PYRAMID OF LIFE 2nd Carnivores: HAWK ------------------------ 1st Carnivores: SNAKE -------------------------------- Herbivores:RABBIT -------------------------------------- Plants:FIELD GRASS

  31. Organization of Feeding Relationships Food Chains: flow of energy through an ecosystem; only one pathway Food Webs: shows all feeding pathways in an ecosystems

  32. The ARROW in both a food chain and food web ALWAYS points in the DIRECTION ENERGY is FLOWING!!!!! Flower Bee Bird Organization of Feeding Relationships

  33. A Food Chain: Demonstrates ONE PATHWAY of feeding within an ecosystem.

  34. Diagram of Food Web

  35. The Pyramid of Biomass Amount of energy (biomass) decreases at each level of the food chain Fewer organisms can be supported at each level

  36. The Pyramid of Biomass The amount of energy or biomass decreases at each level of the food chain. As a result, fewer organisms can be supported at each level!!!

  37. Succession Aging of an ecosystem Process where populations in an ecosystem are gradually replaced by new ecosystems

  38. Land Succession Diagram of Succession

  39. PondSuccessionThe gradualfilling in of a pond over time.

  40. Succession Each community in succession makes the environment better for the next community Previous organisms prepare the way for the next group of organisms

  41. Ecological Succession

  42. Let’s Start From The Beginning • You need some disturbance to clear the land:

  43. Fire

  44. Volcanic Eruption

  45. Mt. St. Helens: May 18, 1980

  46. Mt. St. Helens

  47. Biological Succession • First lichen and mosses grow on bare rock

  48. More Lichen

  49. Lichen is Cool

  50. Biological Succession • Then Ferns and Grasses Grow