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Are there Health Risks Associated with Genetically Modified FOODS? PowerPoint Presentation
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Are there Health Risks Associated with Genetically Modified FOODS?

Are there Health Risks Associated with Genetically Modified FOODS?

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Are there Health Risks Associated with Genetically Modified FOODS?

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  1. Are there Health Risks Associated with Genetically Modified FOODS? Megan Cascaldo Sodexo Dietetic Intern Professional Research Presentation

  2. Overview • What is a “GMO” • History overview • 3 Research studies on health effects of GMO • Study Comparisons • Conclusion

  3. What is a GMO? Genetic Engineering: when scientists introduce traits or characteristics to an organism that would not otherwise have that trait or characteristic Transgenic organism Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt)

  4. Why GMO’s? Adding nutrients “Golden Rice” Aid crops in tolerating herbicides Monsanto Protect crops against certain diseases The papaya ringspot virus

  5. History of GMO’s • 1975 - Asilomar Conference • 1982 - FDA approves the first GMO: human insulin • 1994 - The first GMO is sold in grocery stores all over America • 1997 - Europe mandates labeling for all GMO food products

  6. Timeline continued: • 2003 - a Bt-toxin-resistant insect is found on GMO Btcotton crops • 2011 - Bt toxin is found in Quebec in the blood of pregnant women and had been passed to fetuses. • 2014 - Monsanto’s patent on the Roundup Ready line of GM seeds ends What does the future hold for

  7. Study #1: Pigs fed combined GM soy and maize diet (2013) Background • Pigs are physiologically similar to humans • This study looked at the effects of a genetically modified (GM) corn and soy diet vs non GM corn and soy diet in two groups of pigs • 22.7 weeks long • Sample Size 168 pigs (64per group)

  8. Study #1 continued Method: • Control group feed vs GM feed • Diets had the same nutritional factors • Both fed on self feeding/full feed basis • Weights recorded weekly • Caretakers and veterinarians were blinded

  9. Study #1 continued Results: • No difference in food intake, number of illnesses or veterinarian interventions • Mortalities • Stomach Inflammation • None GM = mild  moderate inflammation • GM = severe inflammation 2.6 times the amount • Uterine weight differences

  10. Figure 1. Different levels of stomach inflammation found (clockwise from top left): nil (from a non-GM-fed pig, number B41), mild (from a non-GM-fed pig, number B15), moderate (from a GM-fed pig, number C34) and severe (from a GM-fed pig, number D22).

  11. Study 2: The effects of 3 GM corn varieties on Mammalian Health (2009) Background: • 90 day study, 400 rats fed 3 main commercialized GM maize used around the world (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863) Methods: • 20 of the rats chosen and 2 feedings tested per sex either 11% or 33% GM maize • After 5-14 weeks of feedings ~80 different biochemical and weight parameters were evaluated in blood and urine

  12. Study #2 continued Results: • NK603 group: • Difference of 23 effects but 18 were in males • Results are sex dependent, males more sensitive • MON 810 group: • 11 of 15 significant only in females, again gender dependent • MON 863 group: • 34 disturbances linked with GM feed, NOT gender dependent

  13. (2013) Study 3: Effects on allergenicity of Isopentenyltransferase-transformed broccoli Background: • 185 individuals from outpatient clinics under the Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology at the Taichung Veterans Hospital were enrolled. • 5mL blood samples collected from each person  13 chosen + 2 healthy volunteers • Naturally grown broccoli + GM broccoli used

  14. Study #3 continued Methods: • Serum from patients drawn and mixed with broccoli extracts • Serum then evaluated for presence of specific IgE to broccoli Results: • Most predominant allergen house dust mite (68.6% of individuals) • All serum had positive reaction to broccoli, no unexpected effects on allergies from the GM broccoli

  15. Comparison of 3 studies: • Study 1 looking at specific diet in animals similar in body composition to that of humans • Study 2 looking at GM maize but in a different animal but looking at a wider range of health effects • Study 3 Using human serum to test for allergens of GM vs non GM broccoli All looking at health risks of GMOs but all with different outcomes.

  16. My conclusions as a Dietetic Intern • All of the research seems to be lacking evidence • More long term studies are needed • However GMO’s are presenting with some health risks which are still alarming enough to cause need for attention

  17. References • Carman JA, Vlieger HR, Steeg LJ, Sneller VE, Robinson GW, Clinch-Jones CA, Haynes JI, Edwards JW. A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet. Journal of Organic Systems. 2013. • Vendomois JS, Roullier F, Cellier D, Seralini GE. A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2009; 5(7): 706-726. • Liao EC, Chen JT, Chao ML, Yu SC, Chang Cy, Chu WS, Tsai JJ. Nonadverse Effects on Allergenicity of Isopentenyltransferase-Transformed Broccoli. J InvestigAllergolClinImmunol. 2013; Vol 23(2): 112-119. • What Are GMO’s? http://ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=7205. USDA Last Updated: 2/23/2005. • GMO Facts: Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.nongmoproject.org/learn-more/ Non GMO Project. 2013 • Agricultural Biotechnology. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome? navid=AGRICULTURE&contentid=BiotechnologyFAQs.xml USDA. Last Updated 12/30/2013. • Food From Genetically Engineered Plants. http://www.fda.gov/food/foodscience research/biotechnology/ucm346030.htm FDA. Last Updated 4/7/2013. • Harvest of Fear. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/ PBS online. Published April, 2001. • GMO Timeline. A history of Genetically Modified Foods. http://gmoinside.org/ gmo-timeline-a-history-genetically-modified-foods/ GMOinside.org. Last Updated: March 10, 2013

  18. Thank you! Now, how do you feel about: