Chapter 3 – Interactive Technologies HCI: Developing Effective Organizational Information Systems Dov Te’eni Jane Carey Ping Zhang Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Road Map Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Learning Objectives • Understand and discuss human perception and interactive technologies that support the various sensory perceptors including: • Vision • Audition • Touch • Understand and discuss interactive input technologies including: • Keyboards • Pointing devices Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Learning Objectives • Understand voice recognition interactive input devices. • Understand touch-related haptic interactive input devices. • Understand and discuss visual display interactive output technologies. • Understand and discuss voice synthesis. • Understand the human–computer interaction (HCI) implications of all these technologies. • Understand the HCI implications of wireless, wearable, and other emerging technologies. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Introduction • This chapter explores interactive technologies. • We have confined this chapter to the exploration of only those technologies that interact with the user and thus support human-computer interaction. • This chapter is organized around input devices and output devices. • We also introduce new technologies such as the wireless PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). • We also discuss the physical constraints imposed by these new technologies to fit the design. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sensory Perception and Interactive Input Devices • Input Device is any machine that feeds data into a computer. • Vision: Keyboards • Keyboard is the set of typewriter-like keys that enable the user to enter data into the computer. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Vision: Keyboards Figure 3.1 Traditional Keyboard Figure 3.2 Split Keyboard Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Vision: Pointing Devices • Pointing Device controls the movement of the cursor on a display screen. • There are six different interaction tasks that can be performed by pointing or manipulation devices: • Select (point and click), • Position (drag and click), • Orient (rotate), • Path (combination of orient and position movements), • Quantify (point and click), and • Text (the pointing device merely initiates the position where the text is to begin and then gives control to the keyboard). Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Vision: Pointing Devices • Types of Pointing Devices • mice (Figure 3.3) • graphic tablets • track balls • Joysticks • pen-based input • touch screens (Figure 3.4) • light pens • voice Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Vision: Pointing Devices Figure 3.3 Mouse Figure 3.4 Touch Screen Figure 3.5 Graphics Tablet Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Audition: Voice Recognition • Voice Recognition is the ability of the computer to recognize human speech. • The four major types of conversational tasks: • Composition tasks • Transcription tasks • Transaction task • Collaboration tasks Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Touch- Haptic Devices • Haptic devices generate sensation to the skin and muscles through touch, weight, and rigidity. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Output Devices • Output Device is a machine capable of representing data from a computer. • Visual Display is an output device that is capable of rendering data from a computer. Data may take the form of graphic, tabular, text or other. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Output Devices • Synthesized speech is appropriate when: • The required message is short and simple, • The message needs an immediate response, • The user/receiver is visually occupied, • The environment is too brightly or poorly lit for ordinary visual displays to be used, • The user is moving around too much to visually attend to a single screen, or • No screen exists but an audio receiver does (e.g., telephone). Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Output Devices • Printers • Ink-jet • Laser • Color printers Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Output Devices – Non-speech auditory • In some environments and for some tasks, non-speech auditory outputs such as beeps are very useful. • An auditory non-speech output is any sound that is generated by the computer or other device that can be detected by the human ear but is not speech-related. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wearable Devices • There is a great deal of interest in the design and implementation of wearable computer devices that are small, durable, and useful particularly in a military setting. • Vision enhancement, translation (text-to-speech, speech-to-text, and language-to-language), pen-based input, navigation, environmental scanning, and detection are among the many tasks performed by wearable devices. • Small GPS (global positioning systems) are often a critical component of these devices. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wireless Devices • Wireless devices: Devices connected to networks and other devices through non-wire media such as infrared signals. • We have many improved tools to support our everyday life. Mobile or wireless devices are allowing people to compute on the run. • Personal digital assistants (PDA), text-based cell phones, palm tops, and other small, portable devices are abundant. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Virtual Devices • Virtual devices are those that support virtual reality interaction. • Virtual reality is an artificial environment that simulates reality. • There are many interaction devices for the world of virtual reality. A combination of exotic headgear, gloves, and body suits orient the user to the virtual world. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Virtual Devices Figure 3.8 Virtual reality glove Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Summary • This chapter presents various technologies that interact with the user. • Input devices • Keyboards • Mice • Joysticks • Track balls • Voice input • Haptic devices Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Summary • Output Devices • Monitors • Printers • Auditory output • Voice synthesis • Also discussed are wearable, wireless, and virtual devices. Copyright 2006 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.